The effects of a combined strength and aerobic exercise program on glucose control and insulin action in women with type 2 diabetes

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Saloníki, Central Macedonia, Greece
Arbeitsphysiologie (Impact Factor: 2.3). 08/2004; 92(4-5):437-42. DOI: 10.1007/s00421-004-1174-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to investigate the short- and long-term effects of a combined strength and aerobic training program on glycemic control, insulin action, exercise capacity and muscular strength in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Nine postmenopausal women, aged 55.2 (6.7) years, with type 2 diabetes participated in a supervised training program for 4 months consisting of two strength training sessions (3 sets of 12 repetitions at 60% one-repetition maximum strength) and two aerobic training sessions (60-70% of maximum heart rate at the beginning, and 70-80% of maximum heart rate after 2 months). Anthropometrical measurements, percentage glycated hemoglobin, a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, exercise stress testing and maximum strength were measured at the beginning, and after 4 and 16 weeks of the exercise program. Significant reductions were observed in both the glucose (8.1% P<0.01) and insulin areas under the curve (20.7%, P<0.05) after 4 weeks of training. These adaptations were further improved after 16 weeks (glucose 12.5%, insulin 38%, P<0.001). Glycated hemoglobin was significantly decreased after 4 weeks [7.7 (1.7) vs 7.1 (1.3)%, P<0.05] and after 16 weeks [7.7 (1.7) vs 6.9 (1.0)%, P<0.01] of exercise training. Furthermore, exercise time and muscular strength were significantly improved after 4 weeks (P<0.01) as well as after 16 weeks (P<0.001) of training. Body mass and body-mass index, however, were not significantly altered throughout the study. The results indicated that a combined training program of strength and aerobic exercise could induce positive adaptations on glucose control, insulin action, muscular strength and exercise tolerance in women with type 2 diabetes.

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Available from: Konstantinos A Volaklis, May 20, 2014
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    • "Furthermore, comparative studies have shown that the combination of both strength and aerobic exercise results in better adaptations in terms of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity than aerobic training alone (Wallace et al. 1997). Data from our laboratory have shown the beneWt of combined strength and aerobic training on insulin action and glycemic control (Tokmakidis et al. 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the effects on blood lipids and physical fitness after a training program that combined strength and aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Ten patients (55.0 +/- 5.2 years) followed four exercise sessions per week, two strength and two aerobic, and ten (59.4 +/- 3.2 years) served as a control group. Lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), HOMA2 index, exercise stress and muscular testing were assessed at the beginning and after 16 weeks of training program. Exercise training increased significantly HDL-C (17.2%; P < 0.001) and decreased triglycerides (18.9%), HbA(1c) (15.0%), fasting plasma glucose (5.4%), insulin resistance (HOMA2 25.2%) and resting blood pressure (P < 0.01). After 16 weeks of training, exercise time (17.8%) and muscular strength increased significantly (P < 0.001). The results indicated that a combined strength and aerobic training program could induce positive adaptations on lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin resistance, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness in post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 06/2009; 106(6):901-7. DOI:10.1007/s00421-009-1078-6 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    • "If allowed to precede unchecked , insulin resistance often leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Anaerobic exercise has recently been recognized to be of potential benefit for the treatment of this condition [1] [2] [3] [4], as progressive resistance training has been found to improve glycemic control, increase skeletal muscle size and strength, while also decreasing visceral and total body fat [5] [6] [7]. Whether insulin resistance affects how muscle responds to resistance training is unknown, but the existence of differences, if present, may help to explain why exerciseinduced skeletal muscle adaptations may differ between normal and diabetic muscle [8] [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Increased muscle loading results in the phosphorylation of the 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and this event is strongly correlated with the degree of muscle adaptation following resistance exercise. Whether insulin resistance or the comorbidities associated with this disorder may affect the ability of skeletal muscle to activate p70S6k signaling following an exercise stimulus remains unclear. Here, we compare the contraction-induced activation of p70S6k signaling in the plantaris muscles of lean and insulin resistant obese Zucker rats following a single bout of increased contractile loading. Compared to lean animals, the basal phosphorylation of p70S6k (Thr389; 37.2% and Thr421/Ser424; 101.4%), Akt (Thr308; 25.1%), and mTOR (Ser2448; 63.0%) was higher in obese animals. Contraction increased the phosphorylation of p70S6k (Thr389), Akt (Ser473), and mTOR (Ser2448) in both models however the magnitude and kinetics of activation differed between models. These results suggest that contraction-induced activation of p70S6k signaling is altered in the muscle of the insulin resistant obese Zucker rat.
    Experimental Diabetes Research 01/2009; 2009:384683. DOI:10.1155/2009/384683 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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