Vegetables, fruits and phytoestrogens in the prevention of diseases.
ABSTRACT The intake of 400-600 g/d of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced incidence of many common forms of cancer, and diets rich in plant foods are also associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and many chronic diseases of ageing. These foods contain phytochemicals that have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties which confer many health benefits. Many phytochemicals are colourful, and recommending a wide array of colourful fruits and vegetables is an easy way to communicate increased diversity of intake to the consumer. For example, red foods contain lycopene, the pigment in tomatoes, which is localized in the prostate gland and may be involved in maintaining prostate health, and which has also been linked with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Green foods, including broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kale, contain glucosinolates which have also been associated with a decreased risk of cancer. Garlic and other white-green foods in the onion family contain allyl sulphides which may inhibit cancer cell growth. Other bioactive substances in green tea and soybeans have health benefits as well. Consumers are advised to ingest one serving of each of the seven colour groups daily, putting this recommendation within the United States National Cancer Institute and American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines of five to nine servings per day. Grouping plant foods by colour provides simplification, but it is also important as a method to help consumers make wise food choices and promote health.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of methanol extracts of Gentiana cru-ciata L. aerial parts and roots, as well as the stability of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacityof extracts during heating, at different pHs and after an in vitro digestion procedure. Also, their genotox-icity and antigenotoxicity against carbon tetrachloride in the liver of albino Wistar rats using the cometassay were evaluated. Three secoiridoid glycosides (swertiamarin, gentiopicrin, and sweroside) and fourphenolic compounds (orientin, vitexin and two isovitexin-glucosides) were identified as the major con-stituents in aerial parts and roots of G. cruciata, using UHPLC-DAD/±HESI-MS/MS analysis. The results ofantioxidant assays showed that aerial parts displayed higher antioxidant activity compared to the roots,which could be related to higher phenolics content, especially flavonoids. In general, extracts showedpH and thermal stability, while duodenal condition had more influence on total phenolic condition andantioxidant activity of extracts. Both extracts showed a protective effect against CCl4in comet assays.The roots extract showed no genotoxic activity, while aerial parts extract showed slight genotoxicity atconcentrations of 400 mg/kg b.w.Industrial Crops and Products 04/2015; 73:49-62. DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.04.013 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: All scientific studies confirm that a varied and balanced diet is a factor in protection against cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity and high cholesterol. The philosophy that food can be a health promoting beyond its nutritional value is gaining acceptance in the public arena and among the scientific community as mounting research links diet/food components to disease prevention and treatment. Biocompounactives contain chemicals that are found in small quantities in plants and certain foods (such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, oils and whole grains), they have actions in the body that can promote good health. In this work, we focus on studies that have been conducted on biocompounactives of common vegetables and legumes, and opportunities that present bioactivity of these phytochemicals to prevent many chronic diseases. As well, emphasis is placed on some challenges that face the good investment of biocompounactives.International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 02/2015; 4(1):89-102. DOI:10.11648/j.ijnfs.20150401.23 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between major dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC) in other populations largely remains consistent across studies. The objective of the present study is to assess if dietary patterns are associated with the risk of CRC in the population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Data from a population based case-control study in the province of NL were analyzed, including 506 CRC patients (306 men and 200 women) and 673 controls (400 men and 273 women), aged 20-74 years. Dietary habits were assessed by a 169-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between dietary patterns and the CRC risk. Three major dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis, namely a Meat-diet pattern, a Plant-based diet pattern and a Sugary-diet pattern. In combination the three dietary patterns explained 74% of the total variance in food intake. Results suggest that the Meat-diet and the Sugary-diet increased the risk of CRC with corresponding odds ratios (ORs) of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.19-2.86) and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.39-3.66) for people in the highest intake quintile compared to those in the lowest. Whereas plant-based diet pattern decreases the risk of CRC with a corresponding OR of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.35-0.87). Even though odds ratios (ORs) were not always statistically significant, largely similar associations across three cancer sites were found: the proximal colon, the distal colon, and the rectum. The finding that Meat-diet/Sugary-diet patterns increased and Plant-based diet pattern decreased the risk of CRC would guide the promotion of healthy eating for primary prevention of CRC in this population.