Vegetables, fruits and phytoestrogens in the prevention of diseases.
ABSTRACT The intake of 400-600 g/d of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced incidence of many common forms of cancer, and diets rich in plant foods are also associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and many chronic diseases of ageing. These foods contain phytochemicals that have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties which confer many health benefits. Many phytochemicals are colourful, and recommending a wide array of colourful fruits and vegetables is an easy way to communicate increased diversity of intake to the consumer. For example, red foods contain lycopene, the pigment in tomatoes, which is localized in the prostate gland and may be involved in maintaining prostate health, and which has also been linked with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Green foods, including broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kale, contain glucosinolates which have also been associated with a decreased risk of cancer. Garlic and other white-green foods in the onion family contain allyl sulphides which may inhibit cancer cell growth. Other bioactive substances in green tea and soybeans have health benefits as well. Consumers are advised to ingest one serving of each of the seven colour groups daily, putting this recommendation within the United States National Cancer Institute and American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines of five to nine servings per day. Grouping plant foods by colour provides simplification, but it is also important as a method to help consumers make wise food choices and promote health.
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between major dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC) in other populations largely remains consistent across studies. The objective of the present study is to assess if dietary patterns are associated with the risk of CRC in the population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Data from a population based case-control study in the province of NL were analyzed, including 506 CRC patients (306 men and 200 women) and 673 controls (400 men and 273 women), aged 20-74 years. Dietary habits were assessed by a 169-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between dietary patterns and the CRC risk. Three major dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis, namely a Meat-diet pattern, a Plant-based diet pattern and a Sugary-diet pattern. In combination the three dietary patterns explained 74% of the total variance in food intake. Results suggest that the Meat-diet and the Sugary-diet increased the risk of CRC with corresponding odds ratios (ORs) of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.19-2.86) and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.39-3.66) for people in the highest intake quintile compared to those in the lowest. Whereas plant-based diet pattern decreases the risk of CRC with a corresponding OR of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.35-0.87). Even though odds ratios (ORs) were not always statistically significant, largely similar associations across three cancer sites were found: the proximal colon, the distal colon, and the rectum. The finding that Meat-diet/Sugary-diet patterns increased and Plant-based diet pattern decreased the risk of CRC would guide the promotion of healthy eating for primary prevention of CRC in this population.
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ABSTRACT: An attempt has been made to review some medicinal plants used for the prevention and treatment of cancer in foreign countries. Information on the botanical names of plants with family names, parts used and their main active components, and original/native place of these plants have been collected from the litera-ture. This article considers 62 medicinal plants of for-eign origin. These plants belong to 40 families, and their different parts (root, stem, bark, corm, bulb, leaf, fruit and seed) or the whole plants/herbs are used. The extracts or decoctions of these are generally used. The medicinal plants contain several phyto-chemicals such as vitamins (A, C, E, K), carotenoids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, enzymes, minerals, etc. These phytochemi-cals possess antioxidant activities, which prevent or can be used in the treatment of many diseases, includ-ing cancer. Herbal drugs are also known to have good immunomodulatory properties. These act by stimulat-ing both non-specific and specific immunity. Keywords. Anticancer medicinal plants, cancer, foreign origin, phytochemicals. CANCER is the abnormal growth of cells in our bodies that can lead to death. Cancer cells usually invade and destroy normal cells. These cells are born due to imbal-ance in the body and by correcting this imbalance, the cancer may be treated. Billions of dollars have been spent on cancer research and yet we do not understand exactly what cancer is 1 . Every year, millions of people are diagno-sed with cancer, leading to death. According to the American Cancer Society 2 , deaths arising from cancer constitute 2–3% of the annual deaths recorded world-wide. Thus cancer kills about 3500 million people annu-ally all over the world. Several chemopreventive agents are used to treat cancer, but they cause toxicity that pre-vents their usage 3 . Cancer is the second leading cause of death in America. The major causes of cancer are smoking, dietary imbal-ances, hormones and chronic infections leading to chronic inflammation 4 . Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women worldwide 1,5 . Amongst South African women, breast cancer is likely to develop in one out of every 31 women in the country 5 . Colon cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in the US 1 . Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men in the US, second to skin cancer with an estimated 180,000 new cases and 37,000 deaths ex-pected by American Cancer Society 6 each year. With in-crease in longevity, the disease is going to be a problem even in India. Cancers affecting the digestive tract are among the most common of all the cancers associated with aging. About one out of every 14 men and women in America is diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer at some time in his/her life. Because of high death rate associated with cancer and because of the serious side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, many cancer patients seek alternative and/or complementary methods of treatment. The impor-tant preventive methods for most of the cancers include dietary changes, stopping the use of tobacco products, treating inflammatory diseases effectively, and taking nu-tritional supplements that aid immune functions. Recent researches revolve round the urgency to evolve suitable chemotherapy consistent with new discoveries in cell biology for the treatment of cancer with no toxic effect. Chemotherapy, being a major treatment modality used for the control of advanced stages of malignancies and as a prophylactic against possible metastasis, exhibits severe toxicity on normal tissues 7,8 . Plants have been used for treating various diseases of human beings and animals since time immemorial. They maintain the health and vitality of individuals, and also cure diseases, including cancer without causing toxicity. More than 50% of all modern drugs in clinical use are of natural products, many of which have the ability to control cancer cells 9 . According to the estimates of the WHO, more than 80% of people in developing countries depend on traditional medicine for their primary health needs. A recent survey shows that more than 60% of cancer patients use vitamins or herbs as therapy 10,11 . Over the past decade, herbal medicines have been accep-ted universally, and they have an impact on both world health and international trade. Hence, medicinal plants continue to play an important role in the healthcare sys-tem of a large number of the world's population 12 . Tradi-tional medicine is widely used in India. Even in USA, use
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Abstract Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram positive opportunistic food borne pathogen, naturally resistant to many antibiotics and acquired resistance may be a concern in the nearer future. Hence, there is a scope for screening of novel therapeutic agents and drug targets, towards the treatment of fatal listerial infections. The SecA homologs, SecA1 and SecA2 are essential components of the general secretion (Sec) pathway, a specialized protein export system present in Listeria monocytogenes. This study evaluates the use of botanicals against Listeria monocytogenes MTCC 1143 by considering SecA proteins as probable drug targets by high throughput screening approaches. The 3D structure of SecA proteins with good stereo-chemical validity was generated by comparative modelling. The drug likeliness and pharmacokinetic properties of 97 phytoligands identified through extensive literature survey were predicted for drug likeliness and ADMET properties. The inhibitory properties of best candidates were studied by molecular docking. The effect of the selected candidate molecules were further analysed in vitro well diffusion and cell aggregation assays. The antibiotic sensitivity profiling applied to Listeria monocytogens MTCC 1143 using clinically relevant antibiotics showed that the bacteria became drug resistant to many tested antibiotics. The virtual screening suggested that 0.05M cinnamic aldehyde from Cinnamomum camphora and 1, 2-Epoxycyclododecane from Cassia auriculata were identified as potential SecA inhibitors. The well diffusion assays suggested that the selected herbal substances have antibacterial activities. Further, preliminary validation suggested that incorporation of cinnamic aldehyde and methanolic or ethyl acetate extract of Cassia auriculata in broth medium shows growth reduction, misassembly and cell aggregation. This indicates the inhibition of SecA targets.Journal of biomolecular Structure & Dynamics 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/07391102.2015.1004110 · 2.98 Impact Factor