Vegetables, fruits and phytoestrogens in the prevention of diseases

UCLA Center for Human Nutrition, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine (Impact Factor: 0.86). 04/2004; 50(2):145-9.
Source: PubMed


The intake of 400-600 g/d of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced incidence of many common forms of cancer, and diets rich in plant foods are also associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and many chronic diseases of ageing. These foods contain phytochemicals that have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties which confer many health benefits. Many phytochemicals are colourful, and recommending a wide array of colourful fruits and vegetables is an easy way to communicate increased diversity of intake to the consumer. For example, red foods contain lycopene, the pigment in tomatoes, which is localized in the prostate gland and may be involved in maintaining prostate health, and which has also been linked with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Green foods, including broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kale, contain glucosinolates which have also been associated with a decreased risk of cancer. Garlic and other white-green foods in the onion family contain allyl sulphides which may inhibit cancer cell growth. Other bioactive substances in green tea and soybeans have health benefits as well. Consumers are advised to ingest one serving of each of the seven colour groups daily, putting this recommendation within the United States National Cancer Institute and American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines of five to nine servings per day. Grouping plant foods by colour provides simplification, but it is also important as a method to help consumers make wise food choices and promote health.

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    • "Fruits and vegetables are good sources of phytochemicals. Fruits contain various antioxidants such as phenolics, carotenoids and vitamins , which are considered to be responsible for the health benefits and for decreasing the risk of diseases caused by oxidative stress and macromolecular oxidation (Heber, 2004; Prior et al., 2003; Rangkadilok et al., 2007). Thus, interest in the investigation of biological activities and bioactive compounds of "
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    ABSTRACT: The bioactive components and biological activities were superior for green (unripe) jujube fruit (as pulp and seed) compared to the ripe fruit. Compared to the properties of ripe pulp, the green pulp of each variety possessed higher phenolic contents, DPPH scavenging activity, and FRAP value. The anti-glycation properties of the jujube samples ranged between 52 and 72%, depending on the ripening stage and variety. Phenolic content was positively correlated with antioxidant and anti-glycation activities, but not with total flavonoid content. Green jujube pulp possessed greater anti-glycation than the ripe jujube pulp in all varieties studied. The water extracts of Bombay and Taiwan jujubes caused moderate Jurkat leukemic cell deaths but with low apoptosis induction effects. This study provides practical information about how best to take advantage of the bioactive compounds and health implications of the jujube as a potential source for functional and nutritive applications.
    Journal of Functional Foods 01/2015; 12:246–255. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.11.016 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    • "2.5. High-throughput screening of ideal lead molecules Phytochemicals are considered to be effective for naturally occurring antibacterial agents, which contribute various therapeutic drug formulations (Heber, 2004). Ninety-seven lead molecules from various medicinal plants, such as Cassia auriculata (Tanners cassia), Leucas aspera (Thumbai), Ficus carica (Ficus), Sesbania grandiflora (August leaves), Spathodea campanulata (African tulip), Adhatoda vasica (Adatodai), Neolamarckia cadamba (Kadam), etc. were selected based on the druglikeness and pharmacokinetic predictions carried out by computer-aided virtual screening. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Abstract Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram positive opportunistic food borne pathogen, naturally resistant to many antibiotics and acquired resistance may be a concern in the nearer future. Hence, there is a scope for screening of novel therapeutic agents and drug targets, towards the treatment of fatal listerial infections. The SecA homologs, SecA1 and SecA2 are essential components of the general secretion (Sec) pathway, a specialized protein export system present in Listeria monocytogenes. This study evaluates the use of botanicals against Listeria monocytogenes MTCC 1143 by considering SecA proteins as probable drug targets by high throughput screening approaches. The 3D structure of SecA proteins with good stereo-chemical validity was generated by comparative modelling. The drug likeliness and pharmacokinetic properties of 97 phytoligands identified through extensive literature survey were predicted for drug likeliness and ADMET properties. The inhibitory properties of best candidates were studied by molecular docking. The effect of the selected candidate molecules were further analysed in vitro well diffusion and cell aggregation assays. The antibiotic sensitivity profiling applied to Listeria monocytogens MTCC 1143 using clinically relevant antibiotics showed that the bacteria became drug resistant to many tested antibiotics. The virtual screening suggested that 0.05M cinnamic aldehyde from Cinnamomum camphora and 1, 2-Epoxycyclododecane from Cassia auriculata were identified as potential SecA inhibitors. The well diffusion assays suggested that the selected herbal substances have antibacterial activities. Further, preliminary validation suggested that incorporation of cinnamic aldehyde and methanolic or ethyl acetate extract of Cassia auriculata in broth medium shows growth reduction, misassembly and cell aggregation. This indicates the inhibition of SecA targets.
    Journal of biomolecular Structure & Dynamics 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/07391102.2015.1004110 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    • "limonene, geranoil, menthal and carvone). Overall, these compounds increase tumour latency and decrease tumour multiplicity (Heber, 2004; Vecchia and Tawani, 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer is the second leading cause of human deaths in the world and claims over 6 millions. In fact, at least 35% of all cancers worldwide are caused by incorrect diet. Malnutrition may cause several diseases, including cancer. Plants have original place in the treatment of cancer with no ill effect. It is distinct that medicinal plants, including fruits and vegetables have versatile immunomodulatory and anticancer activities. Consumption of large amounts of fruits and vegetables can prevent the development of cancer. Many doctors recommend that people wishing to reduce risk of cancer eat several pieces of fruits and several portions of vegetables every day. With this back ground, an attempt has been made to review on certain fruits and vegetables useful against various types of cancer.
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