Article

Specific response of a novel and abundant Lactobacillus amylovorus-like phylotype to dietary prebiotics in the guts of weaning piglets

Laboratory of Microbiology, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen University, Hesselink van Suchtelenweg 4, 6703 CT Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.95). 08/2004; 70(7):3821-30. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.70.7.3821-3830.2004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Using 16S rRNA gene-based approaches, we analyzed the responses of ileal and colonic bacterial communities of weaning piglets to dietary addition of four fermentable carbohydrates (inulin, lactulose, wheat starch, and sugar beet pulp). An enriched diet and a control diet lacking these fermentable carbohydrates were fed to piglets for 4 days (n = 48), and 10 days (n = 48), and the lumen-associated microbiota were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial diversities in the ileal and colonic samples were measured by assessing the number of DGGE bands and the Shannon index of diversity. A higher number of DGGE bands in the colon (24.2 +/- 5.5) than in the ileum (9.7 +/- 4.2) was observed in all samples. In addition, significantly higher diversity, as measured by DGGE fingerprint analysis, was detected in the colonic microbial community of weaning piglets fed the fermentable-carbohydrate-enriched diet for 10 days than in the control. Selected samples from the ileal and colonic lumens were also investigated using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. This revealed a prevalence of Lactobacillus reuteri in the ileum and Lactobacillus amylovorus-like populations in the ileum and the colon in the piglets fed with fermentable carbohydrates. Newly developed oligonucleotide probes targeting these phylotypes allowed their rapid detection and quantification in the ileum and colon by FISH. The results indicate that addition of fermentable carbohydrates supports the growth of specific lactobacilli in the ilea and colons of weaning piglets.

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    • "A correct balance within the GIT microbiota facilitates efficient digestion and maximum absorption of nutrients, and increases resistance to infectious diseases in pigs [29]. Changes in lifestyle and diet are likely to place stress on the stability of these interactions and affect GIT ecophysiology [28]. This is the case for piglets during weaning when, at an early stage, they are subjected to solid feed and transported to production farms. "
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    • "The prevalence of this species in pig faeces coincides with its use as a microbial marker of pig manure (Marti et al., 2010). Konstantinov et al. (2004) demonstrated that the combination of dietary fibre and oligosaccharides present in the diet may specifically stimulate the L. amylovorus-like population along the gut of weaning pigs. The LD b-glucan caused a shift in the community whereby L. ruminis emerged after the feeding period. "
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    • "Konstantinov et al. (2003) Stimulated the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp Mikkelsen et al. (2003a) Elevated levels of Lactobacilli and Enterococci Konstantinov et al. (2004) Reduced in ammonia content in the large intestine and faeces Shim et al. (2005) and Awati et al. (2006) Feeding strategies without using in-feed antibiotics J. M. Heo et al. can be defined as 'a preparation or a product containing viable, defined microorganisms in sufficient numbers , which alter the microbiota (by implantation or colonization) in a compartment of the host, and by that exert beneficial health effects on the host'. Microorganisms to be used as probiotics should be able to survive in the gastric acidic environment and bile salts. "
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