Specific response of a novel and abundant Lactobacillus amylovorus-like phylotype to dietary prebiotics in the guts of weaning piglets

Laboratory of Microbiology, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen University, Hesselink van Suchtelenweg 4, 6703 CT Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.95). 08/2004; 70(7):3821-30. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.70.7.3821-3830.2004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Using 16S rRNA gene-based approaches, we analyzed the responses of ileal and colonic bacterial communities of weaning piglets to dietary addition of four fermentable carbohydrates (inulin, lactulose, wheat starch, and sugar beet pulp). An enriched diet and a control diet lacking these fermentable carbohydrates were fed to piglets for 4 days (n = 48), and 10 days (n = 48), and the lumen-associated microbiota were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial diversities in the ileal and colonic samples were measured by assessing the number of DGGE bands and the Shannon index of diversity. A higher number of DGGE bands in the colon (24.2 +/- 5.5) than in the ileum (9.7 +/- 4.2) was observed in all samples. In addition, significantly higher diversity, as measured by DGGE fingerprint analysis, was detected in the colonic microbial community of weaning piglets fed the fermentable-carbohydrate-enriched diet for 10 days than in the control. Selected samples from the ileal and colonic lumens were also investigated using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. This revealed a prevalence of Lactobacillus reuteri in the ileum and Lactobacillus amylovorus-like populations in the ileum and the colon in the piglets fed with fermentable carbohydrates. Newly developed oligonucleotide probes targeting these phylotypes allowed their rapid detection and quantification in the ileum and colon by FISH. The results indicate that addition of fermentable carbohydrates supports the growth of specific lactobacilli in the ilea and colons of weaning piglets.

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Available from: Barbara A Williams, Aug 02, 2015
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    • "A correct balance within the GIT microbiota facilitates efficient digestion and maximum absorption of nutrients, and increases resistance to infectious diseases in pigs [29]. Changes in lifestyle and diet are likely to place stress on the stability of these interactions and affect GIT ecophysiology [28]. This is the case for piglets during weaning when, at an early stage, they are subjected to solid feed and transported to production farms. "
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    • "The prevalence of this species in pig faeces coincides with its use as a microbial marker of pig manure (Marti et al., 2010). Konstantinov et al. (2004) demonstrated that the combination of dietary fibre and oligosaccharides present in the diet may specifically stimulate the L. amylovorus-like population along the gut of weaning pigs. The LD b-glucan caused a shift in the community whereby L. ruminis emerged after the feeding period. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of algal and yeast β-glucans on the porcine gastrointestinal microbiota, specifically the community of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and coliforms. A total of 48 pigs were fed four diets over a 28-day period to determine the effect that each had on these communities. The control diet consisted of wheat and soya bean meal. The remaining three diets contained wheat and soya bean meal supplemented with β-glucan at 250 g/tonne from Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Faecal samples were collected from animals before feeding each diet and after the feeding period. The animals were slaughtered the following day and samples were collected from the stomach, ileum, caecum, proximal colon and distal colon. Alterations in Lactobacillus in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles generated by group-specific 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Plate count analysis was also performed to quantify total coliforms. DGGE profiles indicated that all β-glucan diets provoked the emergence of a richer community of Lactobacillus. The richest community of lactobacilli emerged after feeding L. digitata (LD β-glucan). Plate count analysis revealed that the L. hyperborea (LH β-glucan) diet had a statistically significant effect on the coliform counts in the proximal colon in comparison with the control diet. β-glucan from L. digitata and S. cerevisiae also generally reduced coliforms but to a lesser extent. Nevertheless, the β-glucan diets did not significantly reduce levels of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium. DGGE analysis of GIT samples indicated that the three β-glucan diets generally promoted the establishment of a more varied range of Lactobacillus species in the caecum, proximal and distal colon. The LH β-glucan had the most profound reducing effect on coliform counts when compared with the control diet and diets supplemented with L. digitata and S. cerevisiae β-glucans.
    animal 02/2013; 7(7):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S1751731113000165 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    • "Konstantinov et al. (2003) Stimulated the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp Mikkelsen et al. (2003a) Elevated levels of Lactobacilli and Enterococci Konstantinov et al. (2004) Reduced in ammonia content in the large intestine and faeces Shim et al. (2005) and Awati et al. (2006) Feeding strategies without using in-feed antibiotics J. M. Heo et al. can be defined as 'a preparation or a product containing viable, defined microorganisms in sufficient numbers , which alter the microbiota (by implantation or colonization) in a compartment of the host, and by that exert beneficial health effects on the host'. Microorganisms to be used as probiotics should be able to survive in the gastric acidic environment and bile salts. "
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    ABSTRACT: For the last several decades, antimicrobial compounds have been used to promote piglet growth at weaning through the prevention of subclinical and clinical disease. There are, however, increasing concerns in relation to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and the potential of these and associated resistance genes to impact on human health. As a consequence, European Union (EU) banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in swine and livestock production on 1 January 2006. Furthermore, minerals such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are not feasible alternatives/replacements to antibiotics because their excretion is a possible threat to the environment. Consequently, there is a need to develop feeding programs to serve as a means for controlling problems associated with the weaning transition without using antimicrobial compounds. This review, therefore, is focused on some of nutritional strategies that are known to improve structure and function of gastrointestinal tract and (or) promote post-weaning growth with special emphasis on probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, trace minerals and dietary protein source and level.
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