Specific Response of a Novel and Abundant Lactobacillus amylovorus-Like Phylotype to Dietary Prebiotics in the Guts of Weaning Piglets

Laboratory of Microbiology, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen University, Hesselink van Suchtelenweg 4, 6703 CT Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.67). 08/2004; 70(7):3821-30. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.70.7.3821-3830.2004
Source: PubMed


Using 16S rRNA gene-based approaches, we analyzed the responses of ileal and colonic bacterial communities of weaning piglets to dietary addition of four fermentable carbohydrates (inulin, lactulose, wheat starch, and sugar beet pulp). An enriched diet and a control diet lacking these fermentable carbohydrates were fed to piglets for 4 days (n = 48), and 10 days (n = 48), and the lumen-associated microbiota were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial diversities in the ileal and colonic samples were measured by assessing the number of DGGE bands and the Shannon index of diversity. A higher number of DGGE bands in the colon (24.2 +/- 5.5) than in the ileum (9.7 +/- 4.2) was observed in all samples. In addition, significantly higher diversity, as measured by DGGE fingerprint analysis, was detected in the colonic microbial community of weaning piglets fed the fermentable-carbohydrate-enriched diet for 10 days than in the control. Selected samples from the ileal and colonic lumens were also investigated using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. This revealed a prevalence of Lactobacillus reuteri in the ileum and Lactobacillus amylovorus-like populations in the ileum and the colon in the piglets fed with fermentable carbohydrates. Newly developed oligonucleotide probes targeting these phylotypes allowed their rapid detection and quantification in the ileum and colon by FISH. The results indicate that addition of fermentable carbohydrates supports the growth of specific lactobacilli in the ilea and colons of weaning piglets.

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    • "A recent study showed that lactulose and Lactobacillus plantarum synbiotic treatment has positive effects in controlling colibacillosis in post-weaning pigs (Guerra-Ordaz et al., 2014). In addition, lactulose was shown to alter specific gut microflora in sow using the denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis method (Konstantinov et al., 2004a; Zheng et al., 2014). Although the study presented interesting results regarding its effects on animal gut physiology, morphology, and metabolites, the influence of lactulose on the composition of the gut microbiome requires further study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lactulose is a synthetic by-product of the isomerization of lactose to disaccharide galactosyl β-(1,4) fructose, and is widely applied as an oral therapeutic and laxative. As a prebiotic, lactulose is thought to control gastrointestinal diseases associated with weaning both in humans and animals. This study focuses on the effect of lactulose as a prebiotic supplement in modulating the microbial community composition and diversity in 30 piglets. The swine faecal microbiome was investigated using 16S rRNA gene barcoded-pyrosequencing before and after lactulose administration for 2 weeks. Major shifts in bacterial composition were detected from the phylum to species level. An increased abundance of Firmicutes phylum and lower abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum were observed in pigs fed with lactulose compared with the control group. Interestingly, there was a negative relationship between lactulose administration and abundance of the genus Escherichia. In addition, a marked increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus reuteri (1.15% to 6.28%) was observed in the lactulose group. The canonical loading plot showed that three genera, Prevotella, Subdoligranulum, and Clostridium, were highly discriminating genera that explain the separation of swine faecal microbiota by lactulose administration. Overall, our results showed that lactulose administration could effectively increase diversity and create a distinct microbial community in weaned piglets, which is believed to be important and beneficial to health and performance.
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    • "and Lactobacillus spp. populations following prebiotic administration have been documented in poultry (Stanley et al., 2012; Patterson and Burkholder, 2003) and pigs (Berge and Wierup, 2012; Konstantinov et al., 2004; Smiricky-Tjardes et al., 2003a). The promotion of these bacterial communities is considered a beneficial effect because the by-products they produce during the fermentation of prebiotics play a major role in improving host health (Choque-Delgado et al., 2011). "
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    • "Previous studies showed that up to 37% of the pectin-rich fraction in SBP is already fermented before the ileum, and another 50% disappeared in the large intestine of pigs (Graham et al. 1986). Konstantinov et al. (2004) determined a considerable microbial activity and increase in lactobacilli populations in the pig small intestine when diets containing SBP were fed. In the stomach, SBP increased SCFA production and a shift from acetate towards propionate and butyrate, showing the relevance of bacterial fermentation in this part of the porcine GIT. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although fermentable carbohydrates (CHO) can reduce metabolites derived from dietary protein fermentation in the intestine of pigs, the interaction between site of fermentation and substrate availability along the gut is still unclear. The current study aimed at determining the impact of two different sources of carbohydrates in diets with low or very high protein content on microbial metabolite profiles along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. Thirty-six piglets (n = 6 per group) were fed diets high (26%, HP) or low (18%, LP) in dietary protein and with or without two different sources of carbohydrates (12% sugar beet pulp, SBP, or 8% lignocellulose, LNC) in a 2 × 3 factorial design. After 3 weeks, contents from stomach, jejunum, ileum, caecum, proximal and distal colon were taken and analysed for major bacterial metabolites (D-lactate, L-lactate, short chain fatty acids, ammonia, amines, phenols and indols). Results indicate considerable fermentation of CHO and protein already in the stomach. HP diets increased the formation of ammonia, amines, phenolic and indolic compounds throughout the different parts of the intestine with most pronounced effects in the distal colon. Dietary SBP inclusion in LP diets favoured the formation of cadaverine in the proximal parts of the intestine. SBP mainly increased CHO-derived metabolites such as SCFA and lactate and decreased protein-derived metabolites in the large intestine. Based on metabolite profiles, LNC was partly fermented in the distal large intestine and reduced mainly phenols, indols and cadaverine, but not ammonia. Multivariate analysis confirmed more diet-specific metabolite patterns in the stomach, whereas the CHO addition was the main determinant in the caecum and proximal colon. The protein level mainly influenced the metabolite patterns in the distal colon. The results confirm the importance of CHO source to influence the formation of metabolites derived from protein fermentation along the intestinal tract of the pig.
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