Ex-vivo and in vitro protective effects of kolaviron against oxygen-derived radical-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in human lymphocytes and rat liver cells.
ABSTRACT The present study reports the protective effects of kolaviron, a Garcinia biflavonoid from the seeds of Garcinia kola widely consumed in some West African countries against oxidative damage to molecular targets ex-vivo and in vitro. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at a concentration of 100 micromol/L increased the levels of DNA strand breaks and oxidized purine (formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) and pyrimidine (endonuclease III (ENDO III) sites) bases in both human lymphocytes and rat liver cells using alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay). Kolaviron was protective at concentrations between 30-90 micromol/L and decreased H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidized bases. Neither alpha-tocopherol nor curcumin decreased H2O2-induced DNA damage in this assay. In lymphocytes incubated with Fe3+/GSH, Fe3+ was reduced to Fe2+ by GSH initiating a free radical generating reaction which induced 11.7, 6.3, and 4.9 fold increase respectively in strand breaks, ENDO III and FPG sensitive sites compared with control levels. Deferoxamine (2 mmol/L), an established iron chelator significantly inhibited GSH/Fe3+-induced strand breaks and oxidized base damage. Similarly, kolaviron at 30 and 90 micromol/L significantly attenuated GSH/Fe3+-induced strand breaks as well as base oxidation. Kolaviron (100 mg/kg bw) administered to rats for one week protected rat liver cells against H2O2-induced formation of strand breaks, ENDO III, and FPG sensitive sites, Fe3+/EDTA/ascorbate-induced malondialdehyde formation and protein oxidation using gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) and 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde (AAS) as biomarkers of oxidative damage to proteins. We suggest that kolaviron exhibits protective effects against oxidative damage to molecular targets via scavenging of free radicals and iron binding. Kolaviron may therefore be relevant in the chemoprevention of oxidant-induced genotoxicity and possibly human carcinogenesis.
Article: Antioxidative and chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. Garcinia kola (Guttiferae) seed, known as "bitter kola", plays an important role in African ethnomedicine and traditional hospitality. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A number of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron. It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 06/2011; 8(6):2533-55. · 1.61 Impact Factor
Article: Prooxidant and cytotoxic action of N-acetylcysteine and glutathione in combinations with vitamin B12b[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prooxidant and cytotoxic effects of thiols N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) were studied in combinations with vitamin B12b. Both GSH and NAC at physiological doses when combined with B12b were shown to cause initiation of apoptosis. It was established that the prooxidant action of NAC (or GSH) combined with B12b, i.e., generation and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in culture medium, led to intractellular oxidative stress and cell redox imbalance. These effects are completely prevented by nonthiol antioxidants catalase and pyruvate. The chelators of iron phenanthroline and deferoxamine do not suppress the H2O2 accumulation in culture medium, but inhibit cell death induced by NAC combined with B12b or by GSH combined with B12b. Therefore, the thiols GSH or NAC in combination with vitamin B12b reveal prooxidant properties and induce, with participation of intracellular iron, apoptotic HEp-2 cell death.Cell and Tissue Biology 01/2007; 1(1):40-49.