The influence of active and passive smoking on habitual snoring

Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (Impact Factor: 11.99). 11/2004; 170(7):799-803. DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200404-474OC
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The impact of active smoking, passive smoking, and obesity on habitual snoring in the population is mainly unknown. We aimed to study the relationship of habitual snoring with active and passive tobacco smoking in a population-based sample. A total of 15,555 of 21,802 (71%) randomly selected men and women aged 25-54 years from Iceland, Estonia, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden answered a postal questionnaire. Habitual snoring, defined as loud and disturbing snoring at least 3 nights a week, was more prevalent among current smokers (24.0%, p < 0.0001) and ex-smokers (20.3%, p < 0.0001) than in never-smokers (13.7%). Snoring was also more prevalent in never-smokers exposed to passive smoking at home on a daily basis than in never-smokers without this exposure (19.8% vs. 13.3%, p < 0.0001). The frequency of habitual snoring increased with the amount of tobacco smoked. Active smoking and passive smoking were related to snoring, independent of obesity, sex, center, and age. Ever smoking accounted for 17.1% of the attributable risk of habitual snoring, obesity (body mass index > or = 30 kg/m(2)) for 4.3%, and passive smoking for 2.2%. Smoking, both current and ex-smoking, is a major contributor to habitual snoring in the general population. Passive smoking is a previously unrecognized risk factor for snoring among adults.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Little is known about environmental determinants of sleep. We investigated the association between black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, and sleep measures among participants of the Boston Area Community Health Survey. We also sought to assess the impact of sociodemographic factors, health conditions, and season on associations. Residential 24-h BC was estimated from a validated land-use regression model for 3821 participants and averaged over 1-6 months and 1 year. Sleep measures included questionnaire-assessed sleep duration, sleep latency, and sleep apnea. Linear and logistic regression models controlling for confounders estimated the association between sleep measures and BC. Effect modification was tested with interaction terms. Main effects were not observed between BC and sleep measures. However, in stratified models, males experienced 0.23 h less sleep (95% CI: -0.42, -0.03) and those with low SES 0.25 h less sleep (95% CI: -0.48, -0.01) per IQR increase in annual BC (0.21 μg/m(3)). In blacks, sleep duration increased with annual BC (β=0.34 per IQR; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.57). Similar findings were observed for short sleep (≤5 h). BC was not associated with sleep apnea or sleep latency, however, long-term exposure may be associated with shorter sleep duration, particularly in men and those with low SES, and longer sleep duration in blacks.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 2 July 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.47.
    Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 07/2014; DOI:10.1038/jes.2014.47 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Simple snoring (SS), in the absence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), is a common problem, yet our understanding of its causes and consequences is incomplete. Our understanding is blurred by the lack of consistency in the definition of snoring, methods of assessment, and degree of concomitant complaints. Further, it remains contentious whether SS is independently associated with daytime sleepiness, or adverse health outcomes including cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Regardless of this lack of clarity, it is likely that SS exists on one end of a continuum, with OSA at its polar end. This possibility highlights the necessity of considering an otherwise 'annoying' complaint, as a serious risk factor for the development and progression of sleep apnoea, and consequent poor health outcomes. In this review, we: 1) highlight variation in prevalence estimates of snoring; 2) review the literature surrounding the distinctions between SS, upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) and OSA; 3) present the risk factors for SS, in as far as it is distinguishable from UARS and OSA; and 4) describe common correlates of snoring, including cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and daytime sleepiness.
    Sleep Medicine Reviews 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2014.04.006 · 9.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The impact of Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in worsening outcomes is profound, especially in the presence of comorbid conditions. This study aimed to describe the proportion of patients at a high risk of OSA in our practice setting. Methods: The STOP BANG questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness scale were used to assess for OSA risk and excessive daytime sleepiness respectively. Hospitalized patients and out-patients were recruited. Intergroup differences in continuous variables were compared using the analysis of variance. The proportion of patients with high risk of OSA and excessive daytime sleepiness was presented as frequencies and group differences compared with the Pearson χ2 test. Independent risk predictors for OSA were assessed in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 1100 patients (53.4% females) participated in the study. Three hundred and ninety nine (36.3%) had a high risk of OSA, and 268 (24.4%) had excessive daytime sleepiness. Of the participants with high OSA risk, 138 (34.6%) had excessive daytime sleepiness compared to 130 (18.5%) of those with low OSA risk (p<0.0001). Age above 65 years, excessive daytime sleepiness, abdominal adiposity, resistant hypertension and high overall cardiovascular risk were independent determinants of a high OSA risk. The magnitude of risk associated with these independent predictors of high risk (Odds ratio) was highest for persons aged above 65 years, those with excessive day time sleepiness, and presence of abdominal adiposity. Conclusion: A significant proportion of patients attending our tertiary care center are at high risk of OSA.
    04/2014; 17(302). DOI:10.11604/pamj.2014.17.302.2898