The influence of active and passive smoking on habitual snoring
ABSTRACT The impact of active smoking, passive smoking, and obesity on habitual snoring in the population is mainly unknown. We aimed to study the relationship of habitual snoring with active and passive tobacco smoking in a population-based sample. A total of 15,555 of 21,802 (71%) randomly selected men and women aged 25-54 years from Iceland, Estonia, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden answered a postal questionnaire. Habitual snoring, defined as loud and disturbing snoring at least 3 nights a week, was more prevalent among current smokers (24.0%, p < 0.0001) and ex-smokers (20.3%, p < 0.0001) than in never-smokers (13.7%). Snoring was also more prevalent in never-smokers exposed to passive smoking at home on a daily basis than in never-smokers without this exposure (19.8% vs. 13.3%, p < 0.0001). The frequency of habitual snoring increased with the amount of tobacco smoked. Active smoking and passive smoking were related to snoring, independent of obesity, sex, center, and age. Ever smoking accounted for 17.1% of the attributable risk of habitual snoring, obesity (body mass index > or = 30 kg/m(2)) for 4.3%, and passive smoking for 2.2%. Smoking, both current and ex-smoking, is a major contributor to habitual snoring in the general population. Passive smoking is a previously unrecognized risk factor for snoring among adults.
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ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that cigarette smoking is associated with sleep disorders in the general population. But studies examining the association between smokeless tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure and insufficient rest/sleep are limited. We examined the association between smoking, smokeless tobacco use (n=83,072), second-hand smoke exposure (n=28,557) and insufficient rest/sleep among adults aged ≥20 years in the state-based 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as >1 day of exposure to cigarette smoking either at home or in the workplace in the preceding 7 days. Insufficient rest/sleep was defined as not getting enough rest/sleep everyday in the preceding 30 days. Compared to never smokeless tobacco users, the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of insufficient rest/sleep was 1.16 (1.00-1.36) and 1.74 (1.37-2.22) among former and current users. Compared to non-smokers/non-smokeless tobacco users, the OR (95% CI) of insufficient rest/sleep for those who were both current smokers and current smokeless tobacco users was 2.21 (1.66-2.94). Regarding second-hand smoke exposure among non-smokers, those with second-hand smoke exposure had higher odds for insufficient rest/sleep than those without. In contrast, the odds of insufficient rest/sleep were similar among current smokers with or without second-hand smoke exposure. In a multiethnic sample of US adults, compared to non-smokers/non-smokeless tobacco users, those who were both current smokers and current smokeless tobacco users had twice the odds of insufficient sleep. Second-hand smoke exposure was associated with insufficient rest/sleep among non-smokers.Sleep Medicine 01/2011; 12(1):7-11. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.09.002 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sleep disorders in the United States are pervasive and have been linked to increased risk of injury, morbidity, and mortality. Smoking is a known risk factor for sleep disorders; the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and sleep disorders is less clear. We sought to examine the relationship between SHS exposure and sleep disorders among a representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 4,123). Data were from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association between both smoking and SHS exposure with two measures of sleep disorder (i.e., self-reported health care provider diagnosis and self-report of two or more sleep symptoms). SHS exposure status was based on a combination of self-report and serum cotinine levels. Relative to nonsmokers without SHS exposure, smokers were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with a sleep disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73 [95% CI = 1.16-2.60]) and more likely to report at least two sleep disorder symptoms (OR = 1.42 [95% CI = 1.09-1.84]). SHS-exposed nonsmokers were not significantly more likely to report a sleep disorder or sleep symptoms (OR = 1.43 [95% CI = 0.79-2.57] and OR = 1.03 [95% CI = 0.83-1.27]), respectively. Although smoking appears to play an important role in the prevalence of sleep disorders in the U.S. adult population, the role of SHS exposure is inconclusive and warrants further investigation.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 03/2010; 12(3):294-9. DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntp193 · 2.81 Impact Factor