The Influence of Active and Passive Smoking on Habitual Snoring

Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (Impact Factor: 13). 11/2004; 170(7):799-803. DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200404-474OC
Source: PubMed


The impact of active smoking, passive smoking, and obesity on habitual snoring in the population is mainly unknown. We aimed to study the relationship of habitual snoring with active and passive tobacco smoking in a population-based sample. A total of 15,555 of 21,802 (71%) randomly selected men and women aged 25-54 years from Iceland, Estonia, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden answered a postal questionnaire. Habitual snoring, defined as loud and disturbing snoring at least 3 nights a week, was more prevalent among current smokers (24.0%, p < 0.0001) and ex-smokers (20.3%, p < 0.0001) than in never-smokers (13.7%). Snoring was also more prevalent in never-smokers exposed to passive smoking at home on a daily basis than in never-smokers without this exposure (19.8% vs. 13.3%, p < 0.0001). The frequency of habitual snoring increased with the amount of tobacco smoked. Active smoking and passive smoking were related to snoring, independent of obesity, sex, center, and age. Ever smoking accounted for 17.1% of the attributable risk of habitual snoring, obesity (body mass index > or = 30 kg/m(2)) for 4.3%, and passive smoking for 2.2%. Smoking, both current and ex-smoking, is a major contributor to habitual snoring in the general population. Passive smoking is a previously unrecognized risk factor for snoring among adults.

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    • "Habitual snoring was reported in 19.8% of even passive smokers (independent of obesity and sex). A strong link between passive smoking and habitual snoring has been documented in children and adults [70]. Worth noting is that the risk for snoring is four times higher due to smoking than obesity (17% versus 4.3%) [61]. "
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    ABSTRACT: OSA is characterized by the quintessential triad of intermittent apnea, hypoxia, and hypoxemia due to pharyngeal collapse. This paper highlights the upstream mechanisms that may trigger cognitive decline in OSA. Three interrelated steps underpin cognitive dysfunction in OSA patients. First, several risk factors upregulate peripheral inflammation; these crucial factors promote neuroinflammation, cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in OSA. Secondly, the neuroinflammation exerts negative impact globally on the CNS, and thirdly, important foci in the neocortex and brainstem are rendered inflamed and dysfunctional. A strong link is known to exist between neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. A unique perspective delineated here underscores the importance of dysfunctional brainstem nuclei in etiopathogenesis of cognitive decline in OSA patients. Nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is the central integration hub for afferents from upper airway (somatosensory/gustatory), respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular (baroreceptor and chemoreceptor) and other systems. The NTS has an essential role in sympathetic and parasympathetic systems also; it projects to most key brain regions and modulates numerous physiological functions. Inflamed and dysfunctional NTS and other key brainstem nuclei may play a pivotal role in triggering memory and cognitive dysfunction in OSA. Attenuation of upstream factors and amelioration of the NTS dysfunction remain important challenges.
    01/2012; 2012(2090-3545):251096. DOI:10.1155/2012/251096
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    • "Data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) showed that 11% of Americans reported insufficient rest/sleep for the preceding 30 days [12]. Cigarette smoking has been shown to be associated with a range of sleep disorders including shorter sleep duration [13], difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep [14] [15], snoring [16] and daytime sleepiness [17]. Previous cross-sectional studies have reported associations between active cigarette smoking and insufficient rest/sleep [18] [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that cigarette smoking is associated with sleep disorders in the general population. But studies examining the association between smokeless tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure and insufficient rest/sleep are limited. We examined the association between smoking, smokeless tobacco use (n=83,072), second-hand smoke exposure (n=28,557) and insufficient rest/sleep among adults aged ≥20 years in the state-based 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as >1 day of exposure to cigarette smoking either at home or in the workplace in the preceding 7 days. Insufficient rest/sleep was defined as not getting enough rest/sleep everyday in the preceding 30 days. Compared to never smokeless tobacco users, the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of insufficient rest/sleep was 1.16 (1.00-1.36) and 1.74 (1.37-2.22) among former and current users. Compared to non-smokers/non-smokeless tobacco users, the OR (95% CI) of insufficient rest/sleep for those who were both current smokers and current smokeless tobacco users was 2.21 (1.66-2.94). Regarding second-hand smoke exposure among non-smokers, those with second-hand smoke exposure had higher odds for insufficient rest/sleep than those without. In contrast, the odds of insufficient rest/sleep were similar among current smokers with or without second-hand smoke exposure. In a multiethnic sample of US adults, compared to non-smokers/non-smokeless tobacco users, those who were both current smokers and current smokeless tobacco users had twice the odds of insufficient sleep. Second-hand smoke exposure was associated with insufficient rest/sleep among non-smokers.
    Sleep Medicine 01/2011; 12(1):7-11. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.09.002 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    • "Other studies have noted that self-reported SHS is associated with snoring among adults (Franklin et al., 2004) and children (Corbo, Fuciarelli, Foresi, & De Benedetto, 1989), which is regarded as a symptom of sleep-disordered breathing such as sleep apnea (Bliwise, Nekich, & Dement, 1991; Wetter & Young, 1994). One of the two known studies specifically relating sleep problems to SHS found that among pregnant women, selfreported nonsmokers exposed to SHS were significantly more likely to report insufficient sleep (OR = 1.38 [95% CI = 1.12–1.44]), "
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep disorders in the United States are pervasive and have been linked to increased risk of injury, morbidity, and mortality. Smoking is a known risk factor for sleep disorders; the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and sleep disorders is less clear. We sought to examine the relationship between SHS exposure and sleep disorders among a representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 4,123). Data were from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association between both smoking and SHS exposure with two measures of sleep disorder (i.e., self-reported health care provider diagnosis and self-report of two or more sleep symptoms). SHS exposure status was based on a combination of self-report and serum cotinine levels. Relative to nonsmokers without SHS exposure, smokers were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with a sleep disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73 [95% CI = 1.16-2.60]) and more likely to report at least two sleep disorder symptoms (OR = 1.42 [95% CI = 1.09-1.84]). SHS-exposed nonsmokers were not significantly more likely to report a sleep disorder or sleep symptoms (OR = 1.43 [95% CI = 0.79-2.57] and OR = 1.03 [95% CI = 0.83-1.27]), respectively. Although smoking appears to play an important role in the prevalence of sleep disorders in the U.S. adult population, the role of SHS exposure is inconclusive and warrants further investigation.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 03/2010; 12(3):294-9. DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntp193 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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