Superoxide-related signaling cascade mediates nuclear factor-kappaB activation in acute inflammation.
ABSTRACT The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in the induction of genes involved in physiological processes, as well as in the response to inflammation. In this study, we used a selective nonpeptidyl superoxide dismutase mimetic, M40403, to investigate the role of superoxide anion in NF-kappaB activation during acute inflammation in mice. Injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity of mice induced an acute inflammatory response characterized by fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity that contained a large number of neutrophils, as well as an increased production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta. All parameters of inflammation were attenuated by M40403 (10 mg/kg i. p., 30 min prior to carrageenan administration). These inflammatory events were associated with the activation of NF-kappaB in the lung. In particular, the appearance of inhibitory protein kappaB-alpha (IkappaB-alpha) in homogenates of lung tissues was investigated by immunoblot analysis at 4 h after carrageenan administration. IkappaB-alpha levels were substantially reduced in the lung tissue from carrageenan-treated mice in comparison with sham-treated mice. Furthermore, to detect NF-kappaB/DNA binding activity, whole extracts from lung tissue of each mouse were analyzed by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. The DNA binding activity significantly increased in whole extracts obtained from lung tissues of vehicle-treated mice 4 h after carrageenan administration. Treatment of mice with M40403 caused a significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced IkappaB-alpha degradation and NF-kappaB/DNA binding activity. These data confirm that M40403 exerts a potent antiinflammatory activity and clearly demonstrate that the reduction of the inflammatory process is associated with modification of the activation of signal transduction pathways.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 12/2008; 484(2):238-44. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has become widely viewed as an underlying condition in a number of diseases, such as ischemia-reperfusion disorders, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, and diabetes. Thus, natural and synthetic antioxidants have been actively sought. Superoxide dismutase is a first line of defense against oxidative stress under physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, the development of therapeutics aimed at mimicking superoxide dismutase was a natural maneuver. Metalloporphyrins, as well as Mn cyclic polyamines, Mn salen derivatives and nitroxides were all originally developed as SOD mimics. The same thermodynamic and electrostatic properties that make them potent SOD mimics may allow them to reduce other reactive species such as peroxynitrite, peroxynitrite-derived CO(3)(*-), peroxyl radical, and less efficiently H(2)O(2). By doing so SOD mimics can decrease both primary and secondary oxidative events, the latter arising from the inhibition of cellular transcriptional activity. To better judge the therapeutic potential and the advantage of one over the other type of compound, comparative studies of different classes of drugs in the same cellular and/or animal models are needed. We here provide a comprehensive overview of the chemical properties and some in vivo effects observed with various classes of compounds with a special emphasis on porphyrin-based compounds.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 09/2010; 13(6):877-918. · 8.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Some evidence indicates that nitric oxide (NO) contributes to inflammation, while other evidence supports the opposite conclusion. To clarify the role of NO in inflammation, we studied carrageenin-induced pleurisy in rats treated with an NO donor (NOC-18), a substrate for NO formation (L-arginine), and/or an NO synthase inhibitor (S-(2-aminoethyl) isothiourea or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine). We assessed inflammatory cell migration, nitrite/nitrate values, lipid peroxidation and pro-inflammatory mediators. NOC-18 and L-arginine reduced the migration of inflammatory cells and edema, lowered oxidative stress, and normalized antioxidant enzyme activities. NO synthase inhibitors increased the exudate formation and inflammatory cell number, contributed to oxidative stress, induced an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance by maintaining high O(2) (-), and enhanced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. L-arginine and NOC-18 reversed the proinflammatory effects of NO synthase inhibitors, perhaps by reducing the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. Thus, our results indicate that NO is involved in blunting-not enhancing-the inflammatory response.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2010; 2010:682879. · 3.26 Impact Factor