In the United States, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is usually performed using intravenous sedation. Sedation increases the rate of both complications and costs of endoscopy. Unsedated esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) using conventional 8-11-mm endoscopes is an alternative to sedated endoscopy but is generally perceived as unacceptable to many American patients. Unsedated EGD using ultrathin 5-6-mm endoscopes is better tolerated. A randomized trial comparing unsedated ultrathin EGD (UT-EGD) with sedated conventional EGD (C-EGD) in a diverse American population is needed.
In this multicenter, randomized, controlled trial, 80 patients scheduled to undergo elective outpatient EGD were randomized to unsedated UT-EGD or sedated C-EGD. The study was carried out at San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and the Liver and Digestive Health Medical Clinic, San Jose.
Baseline characteristics of patients randomized to unsedated UT-EGD and sedated C-EGD were similar. Moreover, there were no significant differences in overall patient satisfaction and willingness to repeat endoscopy in the same manner among the 2 study groups. There was, however, a significant difference in median total procedure time between the 2 study groups of 1.5 hours (P < 0.0001). The mean (+/- SD) total procedure cost was 512.4 US dollars (+/- 100.8 US dollars) for sedated C-EGD and 328.6 US dollars (+/- 70.3 US dollars) for unsedated UT-EGD (P < 0.0001).
Patients undergoing unsedated UT-EGD are as satisfied as patients undergoing sedated C-EGD and are just as willing to repeat an unsedated UT-EGD. Unsedated UT-EGD was also faster, less costly, and may allow greater accessibility to this procedure.
"sible. Since the description of the technique,  unsedated transnasal OGD has proved to be a cost-effective alternative, which significantly improves patient tolerance compared to unsedated conventional peroral OGD     . Transnasal OGD permits a diagnostic yield similar to that of conventional peroral OGD in a variety of circumstances, including the grading of oesophageal varices or the detection of Barrett's oesophagus  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unsedated transnasal oesogastroduodenoscopy significantly improves patient tolerance compared to unsedated conventional peroral oesogastroduodenoscopy.
To assess the adoption of transnasal oesogastroduodenoscopy among endoscopists from various European countries and its determinants.
A survey was distributed to 624 endoscopists attending a live course on digestive endoscopy; a poll was also performed immediately before and after live video retransmission of a transnasal oesogastroduodenoscopy.
Answer rate was 48%; transnasal oesogastroduodenoscopy was practised by 31% of respondents. In multivariate analysis, practice of transnasal oesogastroduodenoscopy was associated with location in France and Netherlands (P<0.0001), availability of many gastroscopes (P<0.0001) and less frequent use of sedation (P=0.006). Endoscopists who did not practise transnasal oesogastroduodenoscopy cited doubts about its advantages over conventional oesogastroduodenoscopy and lack of training (34% each) as barriers to adoption. Seventy-four percent of endoscopists practicing transnasal oesogastroduodenoscopy did actually use it in <20% of eligible cases. Live video retransmission of a transnasal oesogastroduodenoscopy increased the proportion of endoscopists interested in this technique (P=0.006).
Adoption of transnasal oesogastroduodenoscopy largely varies between European countries; endoscopists practicing this technique use it in a minority of eligible cases. Live case demonstration may decrease barriers to the adoption of this technique.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Behavioral descriptions of analog circuits simulate faster than transistor level descriptions. In ASIC and system level simulations they allow total system verification of larger designs than would be possible at transistor level. A system known as AMP simplifies the modeling task by offering a mechanism to develop models via parameterized building blocks. An additional benefit is that the resulting models are compatible with a model linker which can interface the analog models to a purely digital logic simulator.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditional pancreatic function tests are sensitive for the diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency but are cumbersome and difficult to perform. A sedationless endoscopic pancreatic function test that has the potential for wide clinical application was developed by us, but data on the results of this method in healthy subjects are lacking. This study analyzed endoscopically collected duodenal fluid from healthy subjects after synthetic porcine secretin stimulation.
Healthy subjects underwent the sedationless endoscopic pancreatic function test. After secretin stimulation, duodenal aspirates were obtained every 5 minutes for 1 hour. The collected fluid was analyzed for electrolyte concentrations.
Sixteen healthy subjects (8 women, 8 men; median age 34.5 years) underwent the endoscopic pancreatic function test. The concentrations of the sodium ([Na+]) and potassium ([K+]) cations remained constant, similar to normal concentrations in plasma (median [Na+], 155 mEq/L; median [K+], 4.3 mEq/L). The concentrations of the bicarbonate ([HCO 3 - ]) and chloride anions increased and decreased, respectively, in an inverse and reciprocal manner, similar to the previously characterized "secretory curve." The median peak [HCO 3 - ] was 108 mEq/L IQR: 99-110). By the 20-minute collection, the [HCO 3 - ] was greater than 80 mEq/L for 94% (15/16) of subjects, the historic cut point for [HCO 3 - ] in studies based on traditional methods of pancreatic function testing.
Endoscopic collection of pancreatic fluid reproduces the anion-cation secretory curve described by prior studies of pancreatic secretory physiology based on traditional collection methods.
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