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    ABSTRACT: Most studies into social determinants of health conducted in Spain based on data from health surveys have focused on social class inequalities. This paper aims to review the progressive incorporation of gender perspective and sex differences into health surveys in Spain, and to suggest design, data collection and analytical proposals as well as to make policy proposals. Changes introduced into health surveys in Spain since 1995 to incorporate gender perspective are examined, and proposals for the future are made, which would permit the analysis of differences in health between women and men as a result of biology or because of gender inequalities. The introduction of gender perspective in health surveys requires the incorporation of questions related to family setting and reproductive work, workplace and society in general to detect gender differences and inequalities (for example, domestic work, intimate partner violence, discrimination, contract type or working hours). Health indicators reflecting differential morbidity and taking into account the different life cycle stages must also be incorporated. Analyses ought to be disaggregated by sex and interpretation of results must consider the complex theoretical frameworks explaining the differences in health between men and women based on sex differences and those related to gender. Analysis of survey data ought to consider the impact of social, political and cultural constructs of each society. Any significant modification in procedures for collection of data relevant to the study of gender will require systematic coordination between institutions generating the data and researchers who are trained in and sensitive to the topic.
    Journal of Epidemiology &amp Community Health 01/2008; 61 Suppl 2:ii20-25. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between smoking and self-rated health (SRH) among adolescents in Hong Kong. Form 1 (U.S. Grade 7) to 5 students (N = 36,225) from 85 randomly selected secondary schools were surveyed using anonymous, self-administered questionnaires to collect information about smoking, SRH, secondhand smoke exposure, drinking, illicit drug use, physical activities, medical services use, health complaints, and sociodemographic characteristics. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for poor SRH due to smoking in boys and girls. Compared with never-smoking, smoking experimentation, ex-smoking, and current smoking were associated with AORs (95% CI) for poor SRH of 1.22 (1.07-1.40), 1.43 (1.12-1.83), and 1.31 (1.13-1.53), p for trend <.001, in boys and 1.26 (1.10-1.39), 1.42 (1.08-1.85), and 1.75 (1.53-2.00, p for trend <.001, in girls. The AOR of poor SRH for current smoking was higher in girls than boys, p for interaction <.001. Current and experimental smoking but not ex-smoking were significantly associated with poor SRH among healthy students who had no health complaints or recent medical consultations. Increasing cigarette consumption, years of smoking, and smoking urge were also significantly associated with poor SRH. Smoking was associated with poor SRH among Chinese adolescents, especially girls. This finding is useful for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating quitting in adolescent smokers.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 12/2011; 14(6):682-7. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although active smoking has been reported to be associated with poor self-rated health (SRH), its association with secondhand smoke (SHS) is not well understood. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the association of active smoking and SHS exposure with SRH. A total of 2558 workers (1899 men and 689 women), aged 16-83 (mean 45) years, in 296 small and medium-sized enterprises were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Smoking status and exposure levels to SHS (no, occasional or regular) among lifetime non-smokers were assessed separately at work and at home. SRH was assessed with the question: How would you describe your health during the past 1-year period (very poor, poor, good, very good)? SRH was dichotomized into suboptimal (poor, very poor) and optimal (good, very good). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for reporting suboptimal vs optimal SRH according to smoking status and smoke exposure were calculated. Current heavy smokers (20+ cigarettes/day) had a significantly increased suboptimal SRH than lifetime non-smokers after adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, physical and occupational factors (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.69). Similarly, lifetime non-smokers occasionally exposed to SHS at work alone had worse SRH than their unexposed counterparts (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.02-2.11). In contrast, lifetime non-smokers exposed at home alone had no significant increase in suboptimal SRH. The present study indicates an increase in suboptimal SRH among current heavy smokers, and suggests that SHS exposure at work is a possible risk factor for non-smokers. Whether or not the association is causal, control of smoking at work may protect workers from developing future health conditions.
    Public health 10/2009; 123(10):650-6. · 1.26 Impact Factor

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