Nightmares, insomnia, and sleep-disordered breathing in fire evacuees seeking treatment for posttraumatic sleep disturbance.
ABSTRACT Eight months after the Cerro Grande Fire, 78 evacuees seeking treatment for posttraumatic sleep disturbances were assessed for chronic nightmares, psychophysiological insomnia, and sleep-disordered breathing symptoms. Within this sample, 50% of participants were tested objectively for sleep-disordered breathing; 95% of those tested screened positive for sleep-disordered breathing. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that these three sleep disorders accounted for 37% of the variance in posttraumatic stress symptoms, and each sleep disorder was significantly and independently associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms severity. The only systematic variable associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms of avoidance was sleep-disordered breathing. The findings suggest that three common sleep disorders relate to posttraumatic stress symptoms in a more complex manner than explained by the prevailing psychiatric paradigm, which conceptualizes sleep disturbances in PTSD merely as secondary symptoms of psychiatric distress.
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ABSTRACT: We sought to assess the rate of sleep complaints and sleep disorders among active duty soldiers with deployment-related PTSD and to determine whether any clinical features differentiated those with sleep disorders. Retrospective review of consecutive soldiers diagnosed with PTSD. We recorded subjective measures of sleep and polysomnographic data. We compared clinical and demographic variables including psychoactive medication use, psychiatric comorbidity, and combat-related traumatic injury with the presence of sleep disorders. One hundred thirty patients were included (91.5 % male, mean age of 35.1 ± 10.6 years, mean body mass index (BMI) 28.9 ± 4.4 Kg/m(2)). About 88.5 % had comorbid depression, with the majority (96.2 %) taking psychoactive medications (mean 3.4 ± 1.6 medications per patient). Over half of the cohort suffered combat-related traumatic physical injuries (54.6 %). The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) was diagnosed in 67.3 % (80 % of the cohort underwent polysomnography), with a mean apnea hypopnea index of 24.1 ± 22.8 events/hour and a mean oxygen saturation nadir of 84.2 ± 5.7 %. OSAS was significantly more common in the non-injured soldiers (72.9 vs. 38.0 %, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, absence of physical injury showed a trend towards predicting OSAS. Sleep complaints are common among soldiers with PTSD. We observed significantly higher rates of OSAS among those without physical injuries, raising the possibility that underlying sleep-disordered breathing is a risk factor for the development of PTSD. This potential association requires further validation.Sleep And Breathing 04/2014; 19(1). DOI:10.1007/s11325-014-0984-y · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insomnia is a major public health concern, and is highly comorbid with a broad range of psychiatric disorders. Although insomnia has historically been considered a symptom of other disorders, this perspective has shifted. Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that insomnia is related to the onset and course of several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, several randomized controlled trials show that cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia delivered to individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for insomnia and another psychiatric disorder improves the insomnia as well as the symptoms of the comorbid psychiatric disorder. Taken together, these results encompassing a range of methodologies have provided encouraging evidence and point toward insomnia as a transdiagnostic process in psychiatric disorders.Current Psychiatry Reports 09/2014; 16(9):471. DOI:10.1007/s11920-014-0471-y · 3.05 Impact Factor