The calcium-binding aspartate/glutamate carriers, citrin and aralar1, are new substrates for the DDP1/TIMM8a-TIMM13 complex
ABSTRACT The biogenesis of the mitochondrial inner membrane is dependent on two distinct 70 kDa protein complexes. TIMM8a partners with TIMM13 in the mitochondrial intermembrane space to form a 70 kDa complex and facilitates the import of the inner membrane substrate TIMM23. We have identified a new class of substrates, citrin and aralar1, which are Ca2+-binding aspartate/glutamate carriers (AGCs) of the mitochondrial inner membrane, using cross-linking and immunoprecipitation assays in isolated mitochondria. The AGCs function in the aspartate-malate NADH shuttle that moves reducing equivalents from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix. Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome (MTS/DFN-1, deafness/dystonia syndrome) results from a mutation in deafness/dystonia protein 1/translocase of mitochondrial inner membrane 8a (DDP1/TIMM8a) and loss of the 70 kDa complex. A lymphoblast cell line derived from an MTS patient had decreased NADH levels and defects in mitochondrial protein import. Protein expression studies indicate that DDP1 and TIMM13 show non-uniform expression in mammals, and expression is prominent in the large neurons in the brain, which is in agreement with the expression pattern of aralar1. Thus, insufficient NADH shuttling, linked with changes in Ca2+ concentration, in sensitive cells of the central nervous system might contribute to the pathologic process associated with MTS.
- SourceAvailable from: Andreas Bender[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Tim23 protein is the key component of the mitochondrial import machinery. It locates to the inner mitochondrial membrane and its own import is dependent on the DDP1/TIM13 complex. Mutations in human DDP1 cause the Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome (MTS/DFN-1; OMIM #304700), which is one of the two known human diseases of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. We created a Tim23 knockout mouse from a gene trap embryonic stem cell clone. Homozygous Tim23 mice were not viable. Heterozygous F1 mutants showed a 50% reduction of Tim23 protein in Western blot, a neurological phenotype and a markedly reduced life span. Haploinsufficiency of the Tim23 mutation underlines the critical role of the mitochondrial import machinery for maintaining mitochondrial function.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2009; 1787(5):371-6. DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2008.12.001 · 4.66 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Protein translocation pathways to the mitochondrial matrix and inner membrane have been well characterized. However, translocation into the intermembrane space, which was thought to be simply a modification of the traditional translocation pathways, is complex. The mechanism by which a subset of intermembrane space proteins, those with disulfide bonds, are translocated has been largely unknown until recently. Specifically, the intermembrane space proteins with disulfide bonds are imported via the mitochondrial intermembrane space assembly (MIA) pathway. Substrates are imported via a disulfide exchange relay with two components Mia40 and Erv1. This new breakthrough has resulted in novel concepts for assembly of proteins in the intermembrane space, suggesting that this compartment may be similar to that of the endoplasmic reticulum and the prokaryotic periplasm. As a better understanding of this pathway emerges, new paradigms for thiol-disulfide exchange mechanisms may be developed. Given that the intermembrane space is important for disease processes including apoptosis and neurodegeneration, new roles in regulation by oxidation-reduction chemistry seem likely to be relevant.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2008; 1793(1):139-45. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2008.08.002 · 4.66 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aralar, the Ca(2+)-dependent mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier expressed in brain and skeletal muscle, is a member of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle. Disrupting the gene for aralar, SLC25a12, in mice has enabled the discovery of two new roles of this carrier. On the one hand, it is required for synthesis of brain aspartate and N-acetylaspartate, a neuron-born metabolite that supplies acetate for myelin lipid synthesis; and on the other, it is essential for the transmission of small Ca(2+) signals to mitochondria via an increase in mitochondrial NADH.Journal of Neuroscience Research 11/2007; 85(15):3359-66. DOI:10.1002/jnr.21299 · 2.73 Impact Factor