The biogenesis of the mitochondrial inner membrane is dependent on two distinct 70 kDa protein complexes. TIMM8a partners with TIMM13 in the mitochondrial intermembrane space to form a 70 kDa complex and facilitates the import of the inner membrane substrate TIMM23. We have identified a new class of substrates, citrin and aralar1, which are Ca2+-binding aspartate/glutamate carriers (AGCs) of the mitochondrial inner membrane, using cross-linking and immunoprecipitation assays in isolated mitochondria. The AGCs function in the aspartate-malate NADH shuttle that moves reducing equivalents from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix. Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome (MTS/DFN-1, deafness/dystonia syndrome) results from a mutation in deafness/dystonia protein 1/translocase of mitochondrial inner membrane 8a (DDP1/TIMM8a) and loss of the 70 kDa complex. A lymphoblast cell line derived from an MTS patient had decreased NADH levels and defects in mitochondrial protein import. Protein expression studies indicate that DDP1 and TIMM13 show non-uniform expression in mammals, and expression is prominent in the large neurons in the brain, which is in agreement with the expression pattern of aralar1. Thus, insufficient NADH shuttling, linked with changes in Ca2+ concentration, in sensitive cells of the central nervous system might contribute to the pathologic process associated with MTS.
"In CaMCs, as in MCs, mitochondrial targeting information is scattered along
the hydrophobic C-half domain , , , but a significant role
for the long N-terminal extension has been proposed –. Thus, some CaMCs show incomplete
mitochondrial import that is overcome by removing its N-terminal domain –. We have
thus analyzed whether this domain was responsible for the decreased mitochondrial
import of SCaMC-1L. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial carriers (MC) form a highly conserved family involved in solute transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes. In mammals, ATP-Mg/Pi carriers, SCaMCs, form the most complex subgroup with four paralogs, SCaMC-1, -2, -3 and -3L, and several splicing variants. Here, we report the tissue distribution and subcellular localization of a mammalian-specific SCaMC paralog, 4930443G12Rik/SCaMC-1Like (SCaMC-1L), which displays unanticipated new features. SCaMC-1L proteins show higher amino acid substitution rates than its closest paralog SCaMC-1. In mouse, SCaMC-1L expression is restricted to male germ cells and regulated during spermatogenesis but unexpectedly its localization is not limited to mitochondrial structures. In mature spermatids SCaMC-1L is detected in the mitochondrial sheath but in previous differentiation stages appears associated to cytosolic granules which colocalize with specific markers of the chromatoid body (CB) in post-meiotic round spermatids and inter-mitochondrial cement (IMC) in spermatocytes. The origin of this atypical distribution was further investigated by transient expression in cell lines. Similarly to male germ cells, in addition to mitochondrial and cytosolic distribution, a fraction of SCaMC-1L-expressing COS-7 cells display cytosolic SCaMC-1L-aggregates which exhibit aggresomal-like features as the CB. Our results indicate that different regions of SCaMC-1L hinder its import into mitochondria and this apparently favours the formation of cytosolic aggregates in COS-7 cells. This mechanism could be also operational in male germ cells and explain the incorporation of SCaMC-1L into germinal granules.
PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e40470. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0040470 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Tim23p was the first substrate of the DDP1/TIM13 complex identified. Because of its essential function it was hypothesized that decreased levels of Tim23p in the inner mitochondrial membrane could be the cause of MTS  . Here we established a Tim23 mutant mouse using a genetrap clone. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Tim23 protein is the key component of the mitochondrial import machinery. It locates to the inner mitochondrial membrane and its own import is dependent on the DDP1/TIM13 complex. Mutations in human DDP1 cause the Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome (MTS/DFN-1; OMIM #304700), which is one of the two known human diseases of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. We created a Tim23 knockout mouse from a gene trap embryonic stem cell clone. Homozygous Tim23 mice were not viable. Heterozygous F1 mutants showed a 50% reduction of Tim23 protein in Western blot, a neurological phenotype and a markedly reduced life span. Haploinsufficiency of the Tim23 mutation underlines the critical role of the mitochondrial import machinery for maintaining mitochondrial function.
"The cysteine residues are essential for assembly of the small Tim proteins. A missense mutation in the 4th cysteine of DDP1 results in loss of the DDP1–TIMM13 complex, leading to deafness-dystonia syndrome  . The twin CX 3 C motif has been proposed to coordinate Zn 2+ by forming a zinc-finger-like structure . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein translocation pathways to the mitochondrial matrix and inner membrane have been well characterized. However, translocation into the intermembrane space, which was thought to be simply a modification of the traditional translocation pathways, is complex. The mechanism by which a subset of intermembrane space proteins, those with disulfide bonds, are translocated has been largely unknown until recently. Specifically, the intermembrane space proteins with disulfide bonds are imported via the mitochondrial intermembrane space assembly (MIA) pathway. Substrates are imported via a disulfide exchange relay with two components Mia40 and Erv1. This new breakthrough has resulted in novel concepts for assembly of proteins in the intermembrane space, suggesting that this compartment may be similar to that of the endoplasmic reticulum and the prokaryotic periplasm. As a better understanding of this pathway emerges, new paradigms for thiol-disulfide exchange mechanisms may be developed. Given that the intermembrane space is important for disease processes including apoptosis and neurodegeneration, new roles in regulation by oxidation-reduction chemistry seem likely to be relevant.
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