Locking of tunneled hemodialysis catheters with gentamicin and heparin.
ABSTRACT Catheter-related infection (CRI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving hemodialysis. Antibiotic locking of these catheters has been shown to increase both the success of systemic antibiotic treatment in line sepsis, and to reduce the incidence of sepsis. We have studied the use of gentamicin locking of catheters (in combination with standard heparin rather than previously reported citrate) to reduce CRI rates. Furthermore, we have investigated the effects of this strategy on epoetin requirements and vascular access function.
Fifty patients were studied. Patients were randomized to catheter-restricted filling with either standard heparin (5000 IU/mL) alone, or gentamicin and heparin (5 mg/mL). Epoetin requirements and hemoglobin response were monitored over the study period.
The gentamicin-locked group suffered only one infective episode (0.3/1000 catheter days) compared to 10 episodes in six patients in the heparin alone group (4/1000 catheter days, P= 0.02). The isolated organisms were equally split between Staphylococcal species and coliforms. There were no statistically significant differences in delivered dialysis dose (Kt/V) or QA between the two groups. Use of antibiotic locking was associated with both a higher mean hemoglobin (10.1 +/-0.14 g/dL vs. 9.2 +/- 0.17 g/dL in the heparin group, P= 0.003) and a lower mean epoetin dose (9000 +/- 734 IU/week vs. 10790 +/-615 IU/week in the heparin group, P= 0.04).
The practice of locking newly inserted tunneled central venous catheters with gentamicin and heparin is an effective strategy to reduce line sepsis rates, and is associated with beneficial effects on epoetin requirements.
Article: Cefotaxime-heparin lock prophylaxis against hemodialysis catheter-related sepsis among Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers undergoing hemodialysis (HD) through tunneled cuffed catheters (TCCs) form a high-risk group for the development of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and ensuing morbidity. The efficacy of antibiotic-locks on the outcomes of TCCs among S. aureus nasal carriers has not been studied earlier. Persistent nasal carriage was defined by two or more positive cultures for methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin-resistant (MRSA) S. aureus of five standardized nasal swabs taken from all the participants dialyzed at a large out-patient HD center affiliated to a tertiary care hospital. Of 218 participants, 82 S. aureus nasal carriers dialyzed through TCCs (n = 88) were identified through April 2005 to March 2006 and randomized to two groups. Group I comprised of 39 nasal carriers who had TCCs (n = 41) "locked" with cefotaxime/heparin while group II included 43 patients with TCCs (n = 47) filled with standard heparin. The CRBSI incidence and TCC survival at 365 days were statistically compared between the two groups. A significantly lower CRBSI incidence (1.47 vs. 3.44/1000 catheter-days, P <0.001) and higher infection-free TCC survival rates at 365 days (80.5 vs. 40.4%, P <0.0001) were observed in the cefotaxime group compared with the standard heparin group. However, no significant difference in MRSA-associated CRBSI incidence was observed between the two groups. Cefotaxime-heparin "locks" effectively reduced CRBSI-incidence associated with gram-positive cocci, including MSSA, among S. aureus nasal carriers. There remains a compelling requirement for antibiotic-locks effective against MRSA.Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 07/2012; 23(4):743-54.
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ABSTRACT: There is growing concern about the development of antibacterial resistance with the use of antibiotics in catheter lock solutions. The use of an antibiotic that is not usually used to treat other serious infections may be an alternative that may reduce the clinical impact should resistance develop. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare a solution of minocycline and EDTA with the conventional unfractionated heparin for the prevention of catheter-related bacteremia in hemodialysis patients during a period of 90 d. The study included 204 incident catheters (27.8% tunneled); 14 catheters were excluded because of early dysfunction and 3 because of protocol violations. We observed catheter-related bacteremia in 19 patients in the heparin group (4.3 per 1000 catheter-days) and in 5 patients in the minocycline-EDTA group (1.1 per 1000 catheter-days; P = 0.005). We did not detect a significant difference in the rate of catheter removal for dysfunction. Catheter-related bacteremia-free survival was significantly higher in the minocycline-EDTA group than in the heparin group (P = 0.005). In conclusion, a minocycline-EDTA catheter lock solution is effective in the prevention of catheter-related bacteremia in hemodialysis patients.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2011; 22(10):1939-45. · 9.66 Impact Factor
Article: Full and broad-spectrum in vivo eradication of catheter-associated biofilms using gentamicin-EDTA antibiotic lock therapy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Biofilms that develop on indwelling devices are a major concern in clinical settings. While removal of colonized devices remains the most frequent strategy for avoiding device-related complications, antibiotic lock therapy constitutes an adjunct therapy for catheter-related infection. However, currently used antibiotic lock solutions are not fully effective against biofilms, thus warranting a search for new antibiotic locks. Metal binding chelators have emerged as potential adjuvants due to their dual anticoagulant/antibiofilm activities but studies investigating their efficiency were mainly in vitro or else focused on their effects in prevention of infection. To assess the ability of such chelators to eradicate mature biofilms, we used an in vivo model of totally implantable venous access port inserted in rats and colonized either by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We demonstrate that use of tetrasodium EDTA (30 mg/mL) as a supplement to the gentamicin (5 mg/mL) antibiotic lock solution associated with systemic antibiotics completely eradicated Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial biofilms developed in totally implantable venous access ports. Gentamicin-EDTA lock was able to eliminate biofilms with a single instillation, thus reducing length of treatment. Moreover, we show that this combination was effective for immuno-suppressed rats. Lastly, we demonstrate that gentamicin-EDTA lock is able to eradicate the biofilm formed by a gentamicin-resistant strain of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. This in vivo study demonstrates the potential of EDTA as an efficient antibiotic adjuvant to eradicate catheter-associated biofilms of major bacterial pathogens and thus provides a promising new lock solution.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2012; · 4.84 Impact Factor