Enhanced postischemic functional recovery in CYP2J2 transgenic hearts involves mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channels and p42/p44 MAPK pathway

Division of Intramural Research, NIEHS/NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
Circulation Research (Impact Factor: 11.02). 10/2004; 95(5):506-14. DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000139436.89654.c8
Source: PubMed


Human CYP2J2 is abundant in heart and active in the biosynthesis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs); however, the functional role of this P450 and its eicosanoid products in the heart remains unknown. Transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of CYP2J2 were generated. CYP2J2 transgenic (Tr) mice have normal heart anatomy and basal contractile function. CYP2J2 Tr hearts have improved recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) compared with wild-type (WT) hearts after 20 minutes ischemia and 40 minutes reperfusion. Perfusion with the selective P450 epoxygenase inhibitor N-methylsulphonyl-6-(2-proparglyloxyphenyl)hexanamide (MS-PPOH) for 20 minutes before ischemia results in reduced postischemic LVDP recovery in WT hearts and abolishes the improved postischemic LVDP recovery in CYP2J2 Tr hearts. Perfusion with the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP)) inhibitor glibenclamide (GLIB) or the mitochondrial K(ATP) (mitoK(ATP)) inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) for 20 minutes before ischemia abolishes the cardioprotective effects of CYP2J2 overexpression. Flavoprotein fluorescence, a marker of mitoK(ATP) activity, is higher in cardiomyocytes from CYP2J2 Tr versus WT mice. Moreover, CYP2J2-derived EETs (1 to 5 micromol/L) increase flavoprotein fluorescence in WT cardiomyocytes. CYP2J2 Tr mice exhibit increased expression of phospho-p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) after ischemia, and addition of the p42/p44 MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059 during reperfusion abolishes the cardioprotective effects of CYP2J2 overexpression. Together, these data suggest that CYP2J2-derived metabolites are cardioprotective after ischemia, and the mechanism for this cardioprotection involves activation of mitoK(ATP) and p42/p44 MAPK.

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    • "Nithipatikom et al. [27] found that exogenous EETs produced a marked reduction in infarct size in dogs. Another study reported that the expression of CYP2J2 in cardiomyocytes led to improved functional recovery and reduced infarct size after ischemia [28]. EETs were reported to have aided in the preservation of mitochondrial integrity and membrane potential during I/R [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: 14,15-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (14,15-EETs) generated from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases have beneficial effects in certain cardiovascular diseases, and increased 14,15-EET levels protect the cardiovascular system. 14,15-EETs are rapidly hydrolyzed by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to the corresponding 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (14,15-DHETs), which are generally less biologically active but more stable metabolite. A functionally relevant polymorphism of the CYP2J2 gene is independently associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and the major CYP2J2 product is 14,15-EETs. 14,15-DHETs can be considered a relevant marker of CYP2J2 activity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the plasma 14,15-DHET levels to reflect the 14,15-EET levels in an indirectly way in patients with CHD, and to highlight the growing body of evidence that 14,15-EETs also play a role in anti-inflammatory and lipid-regulating effects in patients with CHD. This was achieved by investigating the relationship between 14,15-DHETs and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and blood lipoproteins. Samples of peripheral venous blood were drawn from 60 patients with CHD and 60 healthy controls. A 14,15-DHET enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (14,15-DHET ELISA kit) was used to measure the plasma 14,15-DHET levels. Hs-CRP, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were measured. 14,15-DHET levels (2.53 +/- 1.60 ng/mL) were significantly higher in patients with CHD as compared with those of the healthy controls (1.65 +/- 1.54 ng/mL, P < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between 14,15-DHETs and hs-CRP levels (R = 0.286, P = 0.027). However, there was no significant correlation between 14,15-DHETs and blood lipoproteins (all, P > 0.05). Increased plasma 14,15-DHET levels reflect the decreased of 14,15-EET levels in an indirectly way . Indicated that decreased plasma 14,15-EET levels might be involved in the inflammatory reaction process in atherosclerosis.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 10/2013; 12(1):151. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-12-151 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    • "Similarly, EETs have been shown to activate ERK and p38 MAPKs in ECs (Wang et al., 2005). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that CYP2J2-derived metabolites are cardioprotective subsequent to ischemia by a mechanism that involves p42/p44 MAPK activation (Seubert et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A plethora of studies have demonstrated the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzymes in the heart and other cardiovascular tissues. In addition, the expression of these enzymes is altered during several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including cardiac hypertrophy (CH). The alteration in CYP and sEH expression results in derailed CYP-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. In animal models of CH, it has been reported that there is an increase in 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and a decrease in epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Further, inhibiting 20-HETE production by CYP ω-hydroxylase inhibitors and increasing EET stability by sEH inhibitors have been proven to protect against CH as well as other CVDs. Therefore, CYP-mediated AA metabolites 20-HETE and EETs are potential key players in the pathogenesis of CH. Some studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms by which these metabolites mediate their effects on cardiomyocytes and vasculature leading to pathological CH. Activation of several intracellular signaling cascades, such as nuclear factor of activated T cells, nuclear factor kappa B, mitogen-activated protein kinases, Rho-kinases, Gp130/signal transducer and activator of transcription, extracellular matrix degradation, apoptotic cascades, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress, has been linked to the pathogenesis of CH. In this review, we discuss how 20-HETE and EETs can affect these signaling pathways to result in, or protect from, CH, respectively. However, further understanding of these metabolites and their effects on intracellular cascades will be required to assess their potential translation to therapeutic approaches for the prevention and/or treatment of CH and heart failure.
    Drug Metabolism Reviews 05/2013; 45(2):173-95. DOI:10.3109/03602532.2012.754460 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Using recombinant enzymes, Moran et al. demonstrated that CYP2J2 metabolizes linoleic acid in regioselective manner and produces 12,13-EpOME: 9,10-EpOME in 3:2 ratio [43]. Similarly, higher levels of 12,13-DiHOME, but not 9,10-DiHOME, were observed in the media of cardiomyocytes isolated from the CYP2J2 Tr mice as compared to WT [9]. This data further suggest that the cardiomyocyte specific overexpression of CYP2J2 increases production of the specific regioisomer, 12,13-EpOME. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cardioprotective effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have been demonstrated in models of young mice with either the cardiomyocyte specific over-expression of cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2 Tr) or deletion of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH null). In this study we examined differences in EET-induced cardioprotection in young (2 months) and aged (12 months) CYP2J2 Tr and sEHnull mice using Langendorff isolated perfused heart model. Improved postischemic functional recovery was observed in both young and aged sEH null mice compared to age matched WT. Conversely, the cardioprotective effect observed in young CYP2J2 Tr was lost in aged CYP2J2 Tr mice. The loss of cardioprotection in aged CYP2J2 Tr was regained following perfusion with the sEH inhibitor t-AUCB. Data demonstrated increased levels of leukotoxin diol (DiHOME) and oxidative stress as well decreased protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation in aged CYP2J2 Tr. In conclusion, inhibition of sEH and EET-induced cardioprotection is maintained in aged mice. However, the loss of protective effects observed in aged CYP2J2 Tr might be attributed to increased levels of DiHOME, oxidative stress and/or decreased PP2A activity.
    Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators 08/2012; 104. DOI:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2012.08.001 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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