Cobalt induces hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression in airway smooth muscle cells by a reactive oxygen species- and PI3K-dependent mechanism.
ABSTRACT Cobalt can mimic hypoxia and has been implicated as a cause of lung defects. However, the effect of cobalt on airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells has not been analyzed in detail. In this article, we use primary cultures of ASM cells from rabbit trachea and show that exposure to cobalt chloride causes a rapid increase of the intracellular levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, which is detected predominantly inside the nucleus. With the use of specific inhibitors, we demonstrate that induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha by cobalt depends on active protein synthesis but not transcription. Furthermore, wortmannin, LY294002, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibit the effect of cobalt, suggesting that it involves the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase pathway and production of reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, cobalt chloride attenuates the contractile response of rabbit airways induced by potassium chloride, but not by acetylcholine, suggesting a link between the cellular response to hypoxic stimuli and the contractile properties of ASM cells.
Article: Epstein-Barr virus immortalization of human B-cells leads to stabilization of hypoxia-induced factor 1 alpha, congruent with the Warburg effect.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes six nuclear transformation-associated proteins that induce extensive changes in cellular gene expression and signaling and induce B-cell transformation. The role of HIF1A in EBV-induced B-cell immortalization has not been previously studied. Using Western blotting and Q-PCR, we found that HIF1A protein is stabilized in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells. Western blotting, GST pulldown assays, and immunoprecipitation showed that EBV-encoded nuclear antigens EBNA-5 and EBNA-3 bind to prolylhydroxylases 1 and 2, respectively, thus inhibiting HIF1A hydroxylation and degradation. Immunostaining and Q-PCR showed that the stabilized HIF1A translocates to the nucleus, forms a heterodimer with ARNT, and transactivates several genes involved in aerobic glycolysis. Using biochemical assays and Q-PCR, we also found that lymphoblastoid cells produce high levels of lactate, lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate. Our data suggest that activation of the aerobic glycolytic pathway, corresponding to the Warburg effect, occurs in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells, in contrast to mitogen-activated B-cells.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e42072. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Nitric oxide stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor production in cardiomyocytes involved in angiogenesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha regulates the transcription of lines of genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major gene responsible for angiogenesis. Several recent studies have demonstrated that a nonhypoxic pathway via nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the activation of HIF-1alpha. However, there is no direct evidence demonstrating the release of angiogenic factors by cardiomyocytes through the nonhypoxic induction pathway of HIF-1alpha in the heart. Therefore we assessed the effects of an NO donor, S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) on the induction of VEGF via HIF-1alpha under normoxia, using primary cultured rat cardiomyocytes (PRCMs). PRCMs treated with acetylcholine (ACh) or SNAP exhibited a significant production of NO. SNAP activated the induction of HIF-1alpha protein expression in PRCMs during normoxia. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent Akt phosphorylation was induced by SNAP and was completely blocked by wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a NO synthase inhibitor. The SNAP treatment also increased VEGF protein expression in PRCMs. Furthermore, conditioned medium derived from SNAP-treated cardiomyocytes phosphorylated the VEGF type-2 receptor (Flk-1) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (a fourfold increase compared to the control group, p < 0.001, n = 5) and accelerated angiogenesis. Our results suggest that cardiomyocytes produce VEGF through a nonhypoxic HIF-1alpha induction pathway activated by NO, resulting in angiogenesis.The Journal of Physiological Sciences 02/2006; 56(1):95-101. · 1.61 Impact Factor