Multiple oxidative stress-response members of the Adapt78 family.
ABSTRACT Adapt78 is an oxidative and calcium stress-response gene. Its protein product is a potent natural inhibitor of the intracellular calcium signaling protein calcineurin. Much of what is known about Adapt78 protein is based on cell-transfection studies. Toward understanding natural endogenous Adapt78, we used an antibody raised against cellular Adapt78 and recently determined that endogenous Adapt78 protein, like its mRNA, is oxidative and calcium stress responsive. Here we report the identification of a second endogenous form of this protein family of 41 kDa. Subcellular fractionation of human HeLa cells revealed that in contrast to results of previous transfection studies, most endogenous Adapt78, characterized as 29 and 41 kDa electrophoretic doublets, resides in the cellular cytosol. The 41 kDa form of Adapt78 was abundant and found to exhibit many characteristics in common with the previously reported oxidative stress-responsive 29 kDa form, including hypo- and hyperphosphorylation variants, rapid loss of the hypophosphorylated form following oxidative stress, response to various kinase and phosphatase inhibitors, and localization. However, it also exhibited some unique characteristics, most notably the lack of calcium inducibility. Finally, the 29 kDa form exhibited a much shorter half-life and strong stabilization following oxidant exposure compared with the 41 kDa Adapt78 form. These data reveal the presence of a novel oxidative stress-responsive 41 kDa Adapt78 species, lend further insight into the Adapt78 family of proteins and their distribution, and challenge previous conclusions obtained using transfection protocols.
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ABSTRACT: AD, a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Patients with AD are characterized by three hallmarks of neuropathology including neuritic plaque deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and neuronal loss. Growing evidences indicate that dysregulation of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Aberrant RCAN1 expression facilitates neuronal apoptosis and Tau hyperphosphorylation, leading to neuronal loss and neurofibrillary tangle formation. This review aims to describe the recent advances of the regulation of RCAN1 expression and its physiological functions. Moreover, the AD risk factors-induced RCAN1 dysregulation and its role in promoting neuronal loss, synaptic impairments and neurofibrillary tangle formation are summarized. Furthermore, we provide an outlook into the effects of RCAN1 dysregulation on APP processing, Aβ generation and neuritic plaque formation, and the possible underlying mechanisms, as well as the potential of targeting RCAN1 as a new therapeutic approach.Molecular Neurobiology 04/2014; · 5.29 Impact Factor
- Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics 01/2010; 37(1):22-28. · 0.29 Impact Factor