Article

Partner violence during pregnancy and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes

University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX 77225, USA.
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 2.81). 08/2004; 18(4):260-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2004.00569.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between partner physical or emotional abuse during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes including perinatal death, low birthweight and preterm delivery. Women, aged 18-65, who attended one of two large primary care practices from 1997-98 were recruited for this study. Ever pregnant women were asked the frequency of abuse during each pregnancy and details of the pregnancy outcomes. Information regarding abuse during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes was available for 755 women surveyed who reported a live birth or late fetal death, 14.7% indicated that an intimate partner was violent or abusive toward them during a pregnancy (274 of 1862 pregnancies). Abuse during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of perinatal death (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3, 3.4) and, among live births, with preterm low birthweight (aRR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.5, 4.0) and term low birthweight (aRR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.0, 3.4). Greater abuse frequency was associated with increased risk. Abuse during pregnancy was associated with perinatal deaths and preterm low birthweight deliveries.

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    • "The available reports about maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes due to violence during pregnancy are not conclusive . Some studies have shown positive associations between different forms of abuse and birth outcomes [9] [10] [11] [12] but others did not [13] [14] [15]. The effect of violence on pregnancy is thought to be due to either direct (blow to the abdomen) or indirect (psycho-somatic consequences) mechanisms [16]. "
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    • "Abused pregnant women may develop symptoms like low weight gain during pregnancy, infections, high blood pressure, and vaginal bleeding; they may suffer from posttraumatic stress syndrome, anxiety disorders including panic attacks, depression, sleeping or eating disturbances, tobacco, alcohol, or drug abuse (Van Hightower et al. 2000), or suicidal syndromes (Smith 2001; Wiemann et al. 2000). They may start their prenatal care late (Family Violence Prevention Fund 2008), and are at risk of delivering preterm (Coker et al. 2004; Shumway et al. 1999) or low birth weight infants (McGarry et al. 2006; Murphy et al. 2001; Neggers et al. 2004; Quinlivan and Evans 2001; Silverman et al. 2006; Valladares et al. 2002). Direct effects upon the fetus have also been reported, including physical injuries, such as broken bones or death (Jewkes 2001; Rodriguez et al. 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in pregnant women and to explore relationships of self-esteem and social support (SS) relating to DV. Six hundred young mothers were investigated. 28.2 % reported that they experienced some type of DV during pregnancy. The occurrence of physical abuse was not related to self-esteem or SS. When verbal violence was reported, satisfaction with SS was lower and self-esteem was lower by trend. Self-esteem was substantially lower when sexual violence was indicated. The number of people available for support did not provide a substantial buffering effect, but the perceived quality of SS did. Higher education in the mother and husband, and women’s employment represented protective conditions against the occurrence of DV.
    Journal of Family Violence 04/2012; 27(3). DOI:10.1007/s10896-012-9420-x · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    • "Conceptual hierarchical framework describing mechanisms for the impact of IPV during pregnancy on miscarriage (adapted from Coker et al., 2004 "
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    ABSTRACT: Violence against women by their male intimate partners (IPV) during pregnancy may lead to negative pregnancy outcomes. We examined the role of IPV as a potential risk factor for miscarriage in Guatemala. Our objectives were: (1) To describe the magnitude and pattern of verbal, physical and sexual violence by male intimate partners in the last 12 months (IPV) in a sample of pregnant Guatemalans; (2) To evaluate the influence of physical or sexual IPV on miscarriage as a pregnancy outcome. All pregnant women reporting to the maternity of a major tertiary care public hospital in Guatemala City from June 1st to September 30th, 2006 were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. The admitting physician assessed occurrence of miscarriage, defined as involuntary pregnancy loss up to and including 28 weeks gestation. Data on IPV, social and demographic characteristics, risk behaviours, and medical history were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Laboratory testing was performed for HIV and syphilis. The relationship between IPV and miscarriage was assessed through multivariable logistic regression. IPV affected 18% of the 1897 pregnant Guatemalan women aged 15-47 in this sample. Verbal IPV was most common (16%), followed by physical (10%) and sexual (3%) victimisation. Different forms of IPV were often co-prevalent. Miscarriage was experienced by 10% of the sample (n = 190). After adjustment for potentially confounding factors, physical or sexual victimisation by a male intimate partner in the last 12 months was significantly associated with miscarriage (ORadj 1.1 to 2.8). Results were robust under a range of analytic assumptions. Physical and sexual IPV is associated with miscarriage in this Guatemalan facility-based sample. Results cohere well with findings from population-based surveys. IPV should be recognised as a potential cause of miscarriage. Reproductive health services should be used to screen for spousal violence and link to assistance.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 07/2011; 11:49. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-11-49 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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