Mutational analysis of ABCG2: role of the GXXXG motif.
ABSTRACT ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR/ABCP) is a half-transporter associated with multidrug resistance that presumably homodimerizes for function. It has a conserved GXXXG motif in its first transmembrane segment, a motif that has been linked with dimerization in other proteins, e.g., glycophorin A. We substituted either or both glycines of this GXXXG motif with leucines to evaluate the impact on drug transport, ATP hydrolysis, cross-linking, and susceptibility to degradation. All mutants also carried the R482G gain-of-function mutation, and all migrated to the cell surface. The mutations resulted in lost transport for rhodamine 123 and impaired mitoxantrone, pheophorbide a, and BODIPY-prazosin transport, particularly in the double leucine mutant (G406L/G410L). Basal ATPase activity of the G406L/G410L mutant was comparable to the empty vector transfected cells with no substrate induction. Despite impaired function, the mutants retained susceptibility to cross-linking using either disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS) or the reducible dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) (DSP) and demonstrated a high molecular weight complex under nonreducing conditions. Mutations to alanine at the same positions yielded fully functional transporters. Finally, we exposed cells to mitoxantrone to promote folding and processing of the mutant proteins, which in the leucine mutants resulted in increased amounts detected on immunoblot and by immunofluorescence. These studies support a hypothesis that the GXXXG motif promotes proper packing of the transmembrane segments in the functional ABCG2 homodimer, although it does not solely arbitrate dimerization.
Article: Transmembrane peptide as potent inhibitor of oligomerization and function of human organic anion transporter 1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) plays a critical role in the body disposition of environmental toxins and clinically important drugs, including anti-HIV therapeutics, antitumor drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. We have demonstrated previously that hOAT1 forms homo-oligomers in cultured cells and in rat kidney. However, the functional consequence of such oligomerization has never been elucidated. In the current study, we used a novel approach by examining the effects of short hydrophobic peptides corresponding to transmembrane domains (TMDs) 1 to 12 of hOAT1 on the oligomerization and function of the transporter. We constructed expression vectors encoding short fusion peptides corresponding to TMDs 1 to 12 of hOAT1. These peptides were transfected into hOAT1-expressing COS-7 cells. Our results showed that among all 12 peptides examined, only the peptide corresponding to TMD 6 of hOAT1 significantly disrupted hOAT1 oligomerization demonstrated by cross-linking and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. The same peptide also caused a reduced expression of hOAT1 at the cell surface. As a result, hOAT1-mediated transport activity was compromised. Our data suggest that the peptide corresponding to TMD 6 of hOAT1 is a potent inhibitor of hOAT1 oligomerization and that oligomerization of hOAT1 is critical for the expression of the transporter at the cell surface and consequently for the proper function of the transporter.Molecular pharmacology 03/2011; 79(3):569-74. · 4.53 Impact Factor
Article: Mutational analysis of the role of GXXXG motif in the function of human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human organic anion transporter hOAT1 plays a critical role in the body disposition of environmental toxins and clinically important drugs including anti-HIV therapeutics, anti-tumor drugs, antibiotics, anti-hypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. hOAT1 has two GXXXG motifs in its transmembrane domains 2 and 5, a motif linked to the protein processing and oligomerization of other proteins. In the current study, we substituted glycine of these GXXXG motifs with alanine and evaluated the effect of such mutations on the expression and function of hOAT1. Mutations of GXXXG motif in the transmembrane domain 2 resulted in mutants G144A and G148A, both of which had no transport activity due to complete loss in the surface and total cell expression of the transporter protein. Treatment of G144A- and G148A-expressing cells with proteasomal inhibitor resulted in the recovery of ER-resident immature form of hOAT1, but not its surface-resident mature form, whereas treatment of these cells with lysosomal inhibitor had no effect on the expression of the mutant transporters. Mutations of GXXXG motif in the transmembrane domain 5 resulted in mutants G223A and G227A, among which only G227 had dramatic reduction of transport activity due to dramatic loss in the surface and total cell expression of the transporter. The reduction in the surface expression of G227 was consistent with the decrease in maximum transport velocity Vmax. Treatment of G227A-expressing cells with proteasomal inhibitor or lysosomal inhibitor resulted in partial recovery of both the immature form and the mature form of hOAT1 in the total cell extracts. However, such partial recovery of the mature form in total cell extracts did not lead to the partial recovery of surface expression and function of the transporter. Our data suggest that the GXXXG motifs in transmembrane domains 2 and 5 play critical roles in the stability of hOAT1.International journal of biochemistry and molecular biology. 01/2011; 2(1):1-7.
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ABSTRACT: ABCG2 is one of three human ATP binding cassette transporters that are functionally capable of exporting a diverse range of substrates from cells. The physiological consequence of ABCG2 multidrug transport activity in leukaemia, and some solid tumours is the acquisition of cancer multidrug resistance. ABCG2 has a primary structure that infers that a minimal functional transporting unit would be a homodimer. Here we investigated the ability of a bimolecular fluorescence complementation approach to examine ABCG2 dimers, and to probe the role of individual amino acid substitutions in dimer formation. ABCG2 was tagged with fragments of venus fluorescent protein (vYFP), and this tagging did not perturb trafficking or function. Co-expression of two proteins bearing N-terminal and C-terminal fragments of YFP resulted in their association and detection of dimerization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Point mutations in ABCG2 which may affect dimer formation were examined for alterations in the magnitude of fluorescence complementation signal. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) demonstrated specific ABCG2 dimer formation, but no changes in dimer formation, resulting from single amino acid substitutions, were detected by BiFC analysis.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e25818. · 4.09 Impact Factor