The role of calcium in hypoxia-induced signal transduction and gene expression.
ABSTRACT Mammalian cells require a constant supply of oxygen in order to maintain adequate energy production, which is essential for maintaining normal function and for ensuring cell survival. Sustained hypoxia can result in cell death. Sophisticated mechanisms have therefore evolved which allow cells to respond and adapt to hypoxia. Specialized oxygen-sensing cells have the ability to detect changes in oxygen tension and transduce this signal into organ system functions that enhance the delivery of oxygen to tissue in a wide variety of different organisms. An increase in intracellular calcium levels is a primary response of many cell types to hypoxia/ischemia. The response to hypoxia is complex and involves the regulation of multiple signaling pathways and coordinated expression of perhaps hundreds of genes. This review discusses the role of calcium in hypoxia-induced regulation of signal transduction pathways and gene expression. An understanding of the molecular events initiated by changes in intracellular calcium will lead to the development of therapeutic approaches toward the treatment of hypoxic/ischemic diseases and tumors.
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ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by hypertension, proteinuria, and oxidative stress in the placenta. During the last trimester of gestation, calcium (Ca(2+)) transport from mother to fetus increases dramatically in response to the increased demand for Ca(2+) caused by bone mineralization in the fetus. Ca(2+) supplementation can significantly reduce the incidence and severity of preeclampsia or delay its onset. Ca(2+) transport channels (CTCs) include transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6), plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA1), and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCKX3 or NCX1). We hypothesized that trans-placental Ca(2+) exchange in preeclamptic trophoblasts may be compensated for successful fetal bone mineralization. The roles of cell membrane channels (TRPV6, PMCA1, NCKX3 and NCX1) were examined in placental primary cells and in normotensive and preeclamptic placentas. The biomarker gene for preeclampsia, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1) or marker for oxygen-sensitive gene, hypoxia-sensitive inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), were up-regulated in the preeclamptic placentas and hypoxic cells. The detection of sFLT1 and HIF-1α genes demonstrated that our experimental conditions were suitable to verify a preeclamptic condition. In women experiencing preterm labor, CTC expressions was found to be increased in the fetal and maternal regions of the preeclamptic placenta compared to the observed in normotensive placenta. During term labor, TRPV6 and PMCA1 were highly expressed in the fetal and maternal sections of preeclamptic placenta, while the expression of NCKX3 and NCX1 was reduced. In addition, the expression of CTCs was altered in hypoxia-stressed placental cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that the expression of CTCs was regulated by hypoxia stress in placenta tissues and cells, suggesting that our experimental in vitro hypoxic conditions were similar to those of preeclampsia. Furthermore, impaired Ca(2+) metabolism found in preeclamptic syncytiotrophoblasts was resulted from hypoxic stress, which may induce expression of Ca(2+) transport proteins in the placenta to maintain the balance between maternal and fetal Ca(2+) demand during pregnancy.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 12/2012; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The calcium sensitizers levosimendan and piperphentonamine hydrochloride (PPTA) are used as cardiovascular drugs for treatment of heart failure. Given that levosimendan has been reported to exhibit a neuroprotective profile in a model of traumatic brain injury, it was interesting to know whether PPTA, a new calcium sensitizer recently developed in China, exerts a similar effect. The objective of this study was to determine whether PPTA exhibited neuroprotective effects and whether these properties were associated with memory. Four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) was used to induce global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats treated with or without PPTA (5, 10 mg/kg, i.p., 2 h after the onset of reperfusion and then once a day for 15 consecutive days). Memory was measured using the step-through passive avoidance test. Neurochemical changes were examined in rat PC12 cells treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 4 h followed by reoxygenation (OGD-R) for 24 h, in the absence or presence of PPTA. In vehicle-treated animals, 4-VO for 10 min produced memory deficits, as demonstrated by decreased retention in step-through passive avoidance, and massive neuron loss in the hippocampal CA1 subregion. These effects were attenuated by PPTA. The results were consistent with those observed in PC12 cells. PPTA treatment increased cell viability, as indicated by MTT assay, inhibited apoptosis, and decreased extracellular lactate dehydrogenase levels in Na(2)S(2)O(4)-treated PC12 cells. These results provide novel demonstration for the ability of PPTA to attenuate cerebral ischemia-induced memory deficits via neuroprotection in the hippocampus. The neuroprotective effect of PPTA appears to be associated with its anti-apoptotic activity. PPTA has the therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke.Metabolic Brain Disease 07/2012; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemic brain injury is a leading cause of sever neurological and neurobehavioral deficits and death. The hippocampus plays vital roles in learning and memory processes and it is impaired by ischemic insults. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion leads to Oxidative stress damage impairing the hippocampus. Here we tested whether ascorbic acid and adenosine receptor played a neuroprotective role in a mouse brain ischemia model induced by common carotid arteries occlusion. Adult male mice were randomly assigned into nine experimental groups. The animals were subjected to ischemia by the ligation of common carotid arteries for 15 min. Drugs were injected intrapritoneally once daily for 7 days. Behavioral tests performed at day 14 and then mice were killed at day 21 and their brains were fixed for microscopic studies and some samples were prepared for western blot analysis. Western blot analysis utilized to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related proteinsin the hippocampus. Short-term memory was assessed by shuttle-box test. Our findings revealed that administration of vitamin C and N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) significantly attenuated ischemia-induced brain injury. Vitamin C and CPA administration increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax in the ischemic mice. Ischemia caused short-term memory loss that was improved by vitamin c and CPA treatment. Our results demonstrate that treatment with vitamin C and adenosine receptor agonist attenuated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury as a potential neuroprotective agent.Metabolic Brain Disease 05/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor