The Availability of Psychiatric Programs in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, 1995 to 2001
ABSTRACT The high rate of co-occurrence of substance abuse and mental disorders renders the availability of psychiatric programs, or integrated service delivery, a vital quality-of-care issue for substance abuse clients. This article describes the availability of psychiatric programs and integrated care for clients with severe mental illness in the private substance abuse treatment sector and examines these patterns of service delivery by profit status and hospital status.
S: Survey data from the National Treatment Center Study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of privately funded substance abuse treatment centers, were used to identify the proportion of centers that offered psychiatric programs in 1995-1996, 1997-1998, and 2000-2001. Centers reported whether they treated clients with severe mental illness on-site or referred them to external providers. Repeated-measures general linear models were used to test for significant changes over time and to assess mean differences in service availability by profit status and hospital status.
About 59 percent of private centers offered a psychiatric program, and this proportion did not significantly change over time. The proportion of centers that referred clients with severe mental illness to external providers increased significantly from 57 percent to 67 percent. For-profit centers and hospital-based centers were significantly more likely to offer psychiatric programs and were less likely to refer severe cases to other providers.
S: Although the importance of integrated care for clients with dual diagnoses is widely accepted, data from the private substance abuse treatment sector suggest that this pattern of service delivery is becoming less available.
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ABSTRACT: This paper reports on a survey of administrators (n = 26) and staff (n = 248) in 10 mental health and 16 substance abuse programs in Los Angeles County providing services to individuals with co-occurring disorders. Although half or more of the administrators and staff reported that their programs had some degree of on-site service integration, there was a lack of agreement within most programs as to the extent of integration. Characteristics of services provided and interactions with other service providers are also examined. Future research is needed regarding the divergent perceptions of administrators and staff and their relationship to treatment outcomes.Community Mental Health Journal 07/2005; 41(3):251-66. DOI:10.1007/s10597-005-5000-3 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated patterns of use of mental health care and substance abuse treatment for a nationally representative sample of adults with co-occurring mental health problems and a substance use disorder and compared these patterns with those of persons with either a mental health problem or a substance use disorder. Data were from the 2001 and 2002 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The study examined rates of substance use disorders and mental health problems among adults aged 18 years and older, rates of substance use disorders among adults with mental health problems, and rates of mental health problems among adults with substance use disorders. Next, rates of substance abuse treatment and mental health care use were calculated among five groups that were formed on the basis of the presence of a substance use disorder, mental health problems, or both in the past year. A total of 2,851 respondents had a substance use disorder only, 1,633 had a substance use disorder with one or more mental health symptoms and without serious mental illness, 1,872 had a substance use disorder with serious mental illness, 13,759 had one or more mental health symptoms only, and 7,530 had a serious mental illness only. A substantial proportion of adults with comorbid mental health problems and a substance use disorder did not receive any treatment (46 percent of those with serious mental illness and 65 percent of those with one or more mental health symptoms). Co-occurring substance use disorder was not associated with increased use of mental health care. The likelihood of receiving any substance abuse treatment increased with the presence and severity of mental health problems. Across all five groups, use of mental health care was more common than use of substance abuse treatment. Less than one-third of patients with comorbid mental health problems and a substance use disorder who used mental health care also received substance abuse treatment. The large proportion of untreated individuals with mental and substance use disorders reinforces existing concerns about barriers to beneficial treatment. Low rates of use of substance abuse treatment among patients who have comorbid mental health problems and a substance use disorder and use mental health care suggest that recommendations that substance use disorders be treated before, or concurrently with, mental disorders have not been widely adopted.Psychiatric Services 09/2005; 56(8):954-9. DOI:10.1176/appi.ps.56.8.954 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the outcomes of individuals with co-occurring disorders who received drug treatment in programs that varied in their integration of mental health services. Patients treated in programs that provided more on-site mental health services and had staff with specialized training were expected to report less substance use and better psychological outcomes at follow-up. Participants with co-occurring disorders were sampled from 11 residential drug abuse treatment programs for adults in Los Angeles County. In-depth assessments of 351 patients were conducted at treatment entry and at follow-up six months later. Surveys conducted with program administrators provided information on program characteristics. Latent variable structural equation models revealed relationships of patient characteristics and program services with drug use and psychological functioning at follow-up. Individuals treated in programs that provided specific dual diagnosis services subsequently had higher rates of utilizing mental health services over six months and, in turn, showed significantly greater improvements in psychological functioning (as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory and the RAND Health Survey 36-item short form) at follow-up. More use of psychological services was also associated with less heroin use at follow-up. African Americans reported poorer levels of psychological functioning than others at both time points and were less likely to be treated in programs that provided mental health services. Study findings support continued efforts to provide specialized services for individuals with co-occurring disorders within substance abuse treatment programs as well as the need to address additional barriers to obtaining these services among African Americans.Psychiatric Services 08/2006; 57(7):1007-15. DOI:10.1176/appi.ps.57.7.1007 · 1.99 Impact Factor