Nkx2.1 transcription factor in lung cells and a transforming growth factor-beta1 heterozygous mouse model of lung carcinogenesis.
ABSTRACT The Nkx2.1 homeobox gene and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) are essential for organogenesis and differentiation of the mouse lung. NKX2.1 is a marker of human lung carcinomas, but it is not known whether this gene participates in early tumorigenesis. Addition of TGF-beta1 to TGF-beta1-responsive nontumorigenic mouse lung cells cotransfected with a NKX2.1Luc luciferase reporter and either a Sp1 or Sp3 plasmid showed a significant increase or decrease, respectively, in NKX2.1Luc transcription. Cotransfection of Sp3 and dominant-negative TGF-beta type II receptor plasmids negated the effect of Sp1. Cotransfected Sp1 plasmid with either dominant-negative Smad2 or Smad3 or Smad4 plasmids significantly decreased NKX2.1Luc transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed binding of Sp1 and Smad4 to the NKX2.1 promoter. With a TGF-beta1 heterozygous mouse model, Nkx2.1 mRNA and protein in lungs of TGF-beta1 heterozygous mice were significantly lower compared to wildtype (WT) littermates. Competitive reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunostaining showed that Nkx2.1 mRNA and protein decreased significantly in adenomas and adenocarcinomas compared to normal lung tissue. Our in vitro data showed that regulation of Nkx2.1 by TGF-beta1 occurs through TGF-beta type II receptor and Smad signaling, with Sp1 and Sp3 in lung cells. Our in vivo data showed reduced Nkx2.1 in lungs of TGF-beta1 heterozygous mice compared to WT mice, that is detectable in adenomas, and that is further reduced in carcinogenesis, and that correlates with reduction of Sp1, Sp3, and Smads in lung adenocarcinomas. Our findings suggest that reduced Nkx2.1 and TGF-beta1 signaling components may contribute to tumorigenesis in the lungs of TGF-beta1 heterozygous mice.
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ABSTRACT: GC-boxes and related motifs are frequently occurring DNA-elements present in many promoters and enhancers. In contrast to other elements it was generally thought that the transcription factor Sp1 is the only factor acting through these motifs. The cloning of paralogous genes of the Sp1 factor uncovered the existence of a small protein family consisting of Sp1, Sp2, Sp3 and Sp4. All four proteins exhibit very similar structural features. They contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain composed of three zinc fingers close the C-terminus and serine/threonine- and glutamine-rich domains in their N-terminal regions. The high degree of structural conservation between these four proteins suggested that they do exert similar functions. Molecular, genetic and biochemical analyses, however, demonstrated that Sp2, Sp3 and Sp4 are not simply functional equivalents of Sp1. Here, I will summarize and discuss recent advances which have been made towards understanding the mode of action and biological function of individual family members.Gene 11/1999; 238(2):291-300. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have cloned and sequenced a mouse genomic transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) DNA fragment that includes the 5' untranslated and regulatory regions of the gene. High-sequence homology with the human TGF-beta 1 gene (66% nucleotide identity in 2.7 kb of DNA upstream of the translational start site) suggested evolutionary conservation of transcriptional regulation for TGF-beta 1. The absence of TATA or CAAT box sequences but the presence of several Sp1-binding and AP-2-like sequences in the promoter region was noted, as previously reported for the human gene. Two transcriptional initiation sites separated by 290 bp were identified by S1 nuclease analysis; these corresponded to transcripts with 866 and 576 nucleotides of 5' untranslated leader sequence. S1 analysis of different mouse tissues indicated that the two transcripts were present in the same ratio even though the total level of TGF-beta 1 mRNA transcripts varied between tissues. Promoter activity adjacent to both transcriptional start sites was demonstrated by using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase fusion genes assayed in mouse AKR-2B fibroblast cells. Transcriptional activation of the promoter by the Ha-ras oncogene was also demonstrated. The minimal promoter constructs (113 and 104 bp 5' of the first and second transcriptional start sites, respectively) were sufficient for induction by Ha-ras. These studies characterize the 5' structure and basal promoter activity of the mouse TGF-beta 1 gene as well as the transcriptional activation of TGF-beta 1 by the Ha-ras oncogene.Molecular and Cellular Biology 02/1991; 11(1):84-92. · 5.37 Impact Factor
Article: Genomic sequencing.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Unique DNA sequences can be determined directly from mouse genomic DNA. A denaturing gel separates by size mixtures of unlabeled DNA fragments from complete restriction and partial chemical cleavages of the entire genome. These lanes of DNA are transferred and UV-crosslinked to nylon membranes. Hybridization with a short 32P-labeled single-stranded probe produces the image of a DNA sequence "ladder" extending from the 3' or 5' end of one restriction site in the genome. Numerous different sequences can be obtained from a single membrane by reprobing. Each band in these sequences represents 3 fg of DNA complementary to the probe. Sequence data from mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain genes from several cell types are presented. The genomic sequencing procedures are applicable to the analysis of genetic polymorphisms, DNA methylation at deoxycytidines, and nucleic acid-protein interactions at single nucleotide resolution.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1984; 81(7):1991-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor