Detection and identification of equine Theileria and Babesia species by reverse line blotting: epidemiological survey and phylogenetic analysis.
ABSTRACT Specific oligonucleotide probes were designed to develop a new and highly sensitive reverse line blot assay to detect and identify simultaneously different Theileria and Babesia species in horses. The amplified hypervariable V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene was hybridised against different generic and species-specific probes. The survey was conducted over 243 samples of equine blood divided into three different groups: group 1, 24 horses presented as possible clinical piroplasmosis; group 2, 181 clinically healthy free-ranging horses exposed to ticks; group 3, 38 riding horses with unrelated pathologies and low or no contact with ticks. The study demonstrated a high piroplasm prevalence in the first two groups of animals. Two Theileria genotypes sharing 96.8% similarity between their 18S rRNA gene sequences and two Babesia genotypes sharing 97.4% similarity, were identified. The biologic meaning of such genotypes is discussed in terms of their phylogenetic relationships and potential pathogenicity.
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ABSTRACT: Small subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) genes of three Theileria species, one Cytauxzoon and four Babesia species were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloned and sequenced. Our sequences were aligned with srRNA sequences previously published for eight species of Apicomplexa, one ciliate and one dinoflagellate, the last two being included as free-living outgroup species. Phylogenetic relationships between the organisms were inferred by four independent methods of phylogenetic tree construction using the ciliate Oxytricha nova to root the trees. Our trees fail to show a consensus branching order. They do, however, clearly indicate that the theilerias form a monophyletic taxon derived from a paraphyletic group which includes the species B. equi, C. felis and B. rodhaini. The distance trees indicate that the babesias sensu stricto (B. canis, B. caballi, B. bigemina and B. bovis) form another monophyletic taxon which diverged before the theilerias separated from the above-mentioned paraphyletic group. The parsimony and maximum likelihood trees suggest that the babesias and theilerias are sister taxa, both of which were derived from the paraphyletic group.Parasitology 03/1994; 108 ( Pt 2):147-52. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The recently-developed statistical method known as the "bootstrap" can be used to place confidence intervals on phylogenies. It involves resampling points from one's own data, with replacement, to create a series of bootstrap samples of the same size as the original data. Each of these is analyzed, and the variation among the resulting estimates taken to indicate the size of the error involved in making estimates from the original data, In the case of phylogenies, it is argued that the proper method of resampling is to keep all of the original species while sampling characters with replacement, under the assumption that the characters have been independently drawn by the systematist and have evolved independently. Majority-rule consensus trees can be used to construct a phylogeny showing all of the inferred monophyletic groups that occurred in a majority of the bootstrap samples. If a group shows up 95% of the time or more, the evidence for it is taken to be statistically significant. Existing computer programs can be used to analyze different bootstrap samples by using weights on the characters, the weight of a character being how many times it was drawn in bootstrap sampling. When all characters are perfectly compatible, as envisioned by Hennig, bootstrap sampling becomes unnecessary; the bootstrap method would show significant evidence for a group if it is defined by three or more characters.Evolution 01/1985; 39(4):783-791. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report on a study that evaluated the usefulness of PCR for the routine detection of Babesia equi in horses. The blood from a total of 105 horses comprising both sick and apparently healthy animals were examined for the presence of B. equi using both Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears and PCR. Microscopic analysis of Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 10/105 animals positive for Babesia, compared to 16/105 for the primary PCR and 36/105 for the nested PCR. Three of the 10 samples positive by Wright-Giemsa-stain were negative by PCR for B. equi. However, evidence is presented that these samples contained B. caballi and not B. equi. The Wright-Giemsa-stain was shown to identify Babesia in mostly clinically ill animals while the nested PCR detected the organism in a large number of apparently healthy animals. The results of this study suggest that the nested PCR is superior to both Wright-Giemsa-stained and primary PCR methods, and should be considered for the routine detection of B. equi in both healthy and clinically ill horses.Veterinary Parasitology 06/2003; 114(2):81-7. · 2.38 Impact Factor