Cadmium toxicity to Ceratophyflum demersum L.: Morphological symptoms, membrane damage, and ion leakage

Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (Impact Factor: 1.22). 06/2004; 72(5):1038-45. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-004-0348-6
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    ABSTRACT: Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: In this paper we have to check the capacity of dye decolourization and degradation of textile effluent by A.niger and their silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles characterization was investigated by UV-Vis Spectroscopy, FTIR, and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and SEM analysis. The SP band in silver nanoparticles solution was found to be close to 450 nm. FTIR confirms the presence of possible proteins acting as reducing and stabilizing agent. DLS reveal the average mean size of silver nanoparticles comes out 100 to 1000 nm. SEM analysis image has shown that size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Aspergillus niger was 200nm and seems to be spherical in morphology. A.niger and silver nanoparticles were subjected to dye decolourization study with 11 different dyes and dye effluents are also treated with A.niger and silver nanoparticles for observation of degradation capacity. Silver nanoparticles showed better decolourization and degradation activity on 24 hours (93%) after incubation A.niger shows the lowest decolourization and degradation (56%) activity. After dye degradation physico-chemical parameters were analyzed for plant growth. After degradation effluents are treated with plants and compare the plant growth of plain culture degraded dye effluent and silver nanoparticles degraded dye effluents. That degraded dye effluents were irrigated to plants for their growth. Keywords: Textile effluent, Bioremediation, Aspergillus niger, Silver nanoparticles, Physico-chemical parameters, Field trial.