Hostility is related to blunted beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness among middle-aged women.
ABSTRACT Based on previous findings in men, the hypothesis that hostility would be associated with blunted responsiveness of cardiovascular beta-adrenergic receptors was tested in a study sample of middle-aged women. The roles of the sympathetic nervous system and of social support in this putative relationship were also evaluated.
Subjects were 80 healthy women (n = 23 African American; n = 57 white), aged 47 to 55 years. Hostility was assessed using the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale and social support was assessed with the Brief Social Support Questionnaire. Intravenous isoproterenol challenge was used to evaluate cardiac and vascular beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness. Twenty-four-hour urinary catecholamine excretion was used to index sympathetic nervous system activity.
Hostility was related to blunted cardiac (R = 0.33, p <.01) and vascular (R = 0.23, p <.05) beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness in simple correlation analysis and in hierarchical regression analyses controlling for race, menopausal status, weight, and resting heart rate. Low social support was also related to blunted beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness (R = 0.3, p <.01). Twenty-four-hour norepinephrine excretion was related both to hostility (R = 0.32, p <.01) and to cardiac (R = 0.25, p <.05) and vascular (R = 0.24, p <.05) beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness.
These observations replicate and extend previous findings in men by demonstrating that higher levels of hostility and low levels of social support are associated with blunted beta-adrenergic receptor responsiveness in middle-aged women. They also suggest that heightened sympathetic nervous system activity associated with hostility may contribute to beta-adrenergic receptor blunting. Because blunted beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity is a characteristic feature of a broad range of cardiovascular diseases, these findings may reflect an early preclinical manifestation of pathophysiology accompanying hostility and low social support.
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the impact of breathing awareness meditation (BAM), life skills (LS) training, and health education (HE) interventions on self-reported hostility and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in 121 African American (AA) ninth graders at increased risk for development of essential hypertension. They were randomly assigned to BAM, LS, or HE and engaged in intervention sessions during health class for 3 months. Before, after, and 3 months following intervention cessation, self-reported hostility and 24-hour ABP were measured. Results indicated that between pre- and postintervention, BAM participants displayed significant reductions in self-reported hostility and 24-hour systolic ABP. Reductions in hostility were significantly related to reductions in 24-hour systolic ABP. Between postintervention and follow-up, participants receiving LS showed a significant reduction in hostility but not in 24-hour ABP. Significant changes were not found for the HE group in 24-hour ABP or self-reported hostility, but these change scores were significantly correlated. The implications of the findings are discussed with regard to behavioral stress reduction programs for the physical and emotional health of AAs.Journal of Black Psychology 05/2011; 37(2):210-233. · 0.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Depressive symptoms and fatigue frequently overlap in clinical samples and the general population. The link of depressive symptoms and fatigue with increased risk of cardiovascular disease has been partly explained by shared biological mechanisms including sympathetic overactivity. Prolonged sympathetic overactivity downregulates the responsiveness of the β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR), a receptor that mediates several end-organ sympathetic responses. The authors studied whether depression and fatigue are related to reduced β-AR responsiveness within the human body (in vivo) in an ethnically diverse sample of African and Caucasian Americans. The chronotropic25 dose (CD25) was used to determine in vivo β-AR responsiveness in 93 healthy participants. Psychometric measures included the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory. Hierarchical regression analyses (adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, and ethnicity) revealed that mental fatigue was significantly related to reduced β-AR responsiveness (i.e., higher CD25 values) in the whole sample. Moderation analyses indicated significant ethnicity × depression/fatigue interactions. Depressive symptoms, total fatigue, emotional fatigue, mental fatigue, and physical fatigue were related to reduced β-AR responsiveness in Caucasian American but not in African Americans. Our findings suggest that symptoms of depression and fatigue are related to decreased in vivo β-AR responsiveness in Caucasian Americans. The lack of this association in African Americans highlights the importance for considering ethnicity as a potential moderator in research focusing on associations between psychological variables and cardiovascular function.International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 10/2013; · 2.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ZET Bu çalışmada sağlıklı genç erkeklerde, atriyal fibrilasyon gelişimi için risk etkeni olduğu bilinen P-dalga değişkenliği ile pozitif ve negatif duygu dü-zeyleri arasındaki ilişkinin araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmaya 21-30 yaş arası ve fiziksel yönden sağlıklı 66 erkek olgu alınmıştır. Deneklerin 12 derivasyonlu elektrokardiyografileri çekilmiş ve standart ekokardiyografik incelemeleri yapılmıştır. P-dalga değişkenliği, en uzun ve en kısa P dalga sü-resi arasındaki fark olarak tanımlanmıştır. Deneklerin pozitif ve negatif duy-gudurum düzeyi Pozitif ve Negatif Duygu Ölçeği ile saptanmıştır. Denekler pozitif ve negatif duygu düzeyi puanlarına göre "yüksek" ve "düşük" olarak iki gruba ayrılmıştır. Pozitif duygu düzeyi ile P-dalga değişkenliği arasında anlamlı farklılık olmadığı, ancak negatif duygu düzeyi ile P-dalga değişkenliği arasında anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca, P-dalga değişken-liğinin negatif duygu düzeyi ile bağıntılı olduğu saptanmıştır. Bu çalışmanın sonuçları sağlıklı genç erkeklerde P-dalga değişkenliği ile negatif duygu dü-zeyi arasında ilişki olduğunu göstermektedir. Bulgular daha önce anksiyete ve öfke gibi olumsuz duygular ile P-dalga değişkenliğinin ilişkisinin incelen-diği çalışmaların sonuçları ile uyumlu olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Anahtar kelimeler: Negatif duygu düzeyi, P dalga değişkenliği, pozitif duygu düzeyi SUMMARY The relationship between positive and negative affect levels and electrocardiographic P-wave variability in healthy young males The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between positive and negative affect levels and P wave variability, which is a known risk fac-tor for atrial fibrillation in healthy young males. Sixty six physically healthy male subjects between the ages of 21 and 30 were included in the study. Twelve derivation electrocardiogram was taken and standart echocardio-graphic evaluation was made in the cases in the study. P-wave variability was defined as the difference between the longest and shortest P wave duration. Positive and negative affect levels of the cases were determined with Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Subject were divided into two groups as "high" and "low" according to their scores of positive and nega-tive affect levels. There was not a correlation between positive affect level and P-wave variability whereas there was a significant correlation between negative affect level and P-wave variability. Results of this study show that there is a relationship between negative affect level and P-wave variability in healthy young males. The findings are in consistent with the findings of previous studies investigating the relationship between negative emotions such as anxiety and hostility and P-wave variability.