Multiphoton autofluorescence imaging of intratissue elastic fibers.
ABSTRACT Multiphoton induced blue/green autofluorescence by near infrared femtosecond laser pulses has been used to selectively image intratissue elastic fibers in native and tissue engineered (TE) viable heart valves without any invasive tissue removal, embedding, fixation, and staining. Elastic fibers could be clearly distinguished from collagenous structures which emit ultraviolet/violet radiation when excited with intense ultrashort pulses due to second harmonic generation. Deep-tissue three-dimensional imaging of elastic fibers with submicron spatial resolution was performed by optical sectioning of heart valves using a multiphoton laser scanning microscope in connection with a tunable 80 MHz femtosecond laser source. The technology was used to diagnose extracellular matrix structures and cell resettlement of TE heart valves prior implantation. This novel non-invasive method opens the general possibility of high-resolution in situ imaging of elastic fibers, collagen structures and intracellular organelles in living intact tissues without staining.
Article: Two-photon microscopy for non-invasive, quantitative monitoring of stem cell differentiation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The engineering of functional tissues is a complex multi-stage process, the success of which depends on the careful control of culture conditions and ultimately tissue maturation. To enable the efficient optimization of tissue development protocols, techniques suitable for monitoring the effects of added stimuli and induced tissue changes are needed. Here, we present the quantitative use of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) as a noninvasive means to monitor the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) using entirely endogenous sources of contrast. We demonstrate that the individual fluorescence contribution from the intrinsic cellular fluorophores NAD(P)H, flavoproteins and lipofuscin can be extracted from TPEF images and monitored dynamically from the same cell population over time. Using the redox ratio, calculated from the contributions of NAD(P)H and flavoproteins, we identify distinct patterns in the evolution of the metabolic activity of hMSCs maintained in either propagation, osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation media. The differentiation of these cells is mirrored by changes in cell morphology apparent in high resolution TPEF images and by the detection of collagen production via SHG imaging. Finally, we find dramatic increases in lipofuscin levels in hMSCs maintained at 20% oxygen vs. those in 5% oxygen, establishing the use of this chromophore as a potential biomarker for oxidative stress. In this study we demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the metabolic activity, morphology, ECM production and oxidative stress of hMSCs in a non-invasive manner. This is accomplished using generally available multiphoton microscopy equipment and simple data analysis techniques, such that the method can widely adopted by laboratories with a diversity of comparable equipment. This method therefore represents a powerful tool, which enables researchers to monitor engineered tissues and optimize culture conditions in a near real time manner.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(4):e10075. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We review multiphoton microscopy (MPM) including two-photon autofluorescence (2PAF), second harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG), fluorescence lifetime (FLIM), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) with relevance to clinical applications in ophthalmology. The different imaging modalities are discussed highlighting the particular strength that each has for functional tissue imaging. MPM is compared with current clinical ophthalmological imaging techniques such as reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence imaging. In addition, we discuss the future prospects for MPM in disease detection and clinical monitoring of disease progression, understanding fundamental disease mechanisms, and real-time monitoring of drug delivery.Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2011; 2011:870879.
Article: Sub-cellular tumor identification and markerless differentiation in the rat brain in vivo by multiphoton microscopy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Aim of the current study was to localize and differentiate between tumor (glioma) and healthy tissue in rat brains on a cellular level. Near-infrared multiphoton microscopy takes advantage of the simultaneous absorption of two or more photons to analyze various materials such as cell and tissue components via the observation of endogenous fluorophores such as NAD(P)H, FAD, porphyrins, melanin, elastin, and collagen, with a very high resolution, without inducing the problems of photo-bleaching on out-of-focus areas. METHODS: In vitro and in vivo studies on healthy rat brains as well as C6 glioma cell line allografts have been performed. Near-infrared laser pulses (λ = 690-1060 nm, τ ∼140 fs) generated by an ultrafast Ti:Sapphire tunable laser system (Chameleon, Coherent GmbH, Santa Clara, CA) were coupled into a laser scanning microscope (LSM 510 META, Carl Zeiss, Germany) to observe high quality images. RESULTS: Several image acquisitions have been performed by varying the zoom scale of the multiphoton microscope, image acquisition time and the wavelength (765, 840 nm) to detect various tissue components. With a penetration depth of ∼200 µm in vitro and about 30-60 µm in vivo into the brain tissue it was possible to differentiate between tumor and healthy brain tissue even through thin layers of blood. CONCLUSION: Near-infrared multiphoton microscopy allows the observation and possibly differentiation between tumor (glioma) and healthy tissue in rat brains on a cellular level. Our findings suggest that a further miniaturization of this technology might be very useful for scientific and clinical applications in neurosurgery. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 09/2012; · 2.75 Impact Factor