Visual word recognition: The first half second

Division of Psychology, School of Biology, University of Newcastle, UK.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.36). 09/2004; 22(4):1819-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.05.004
Source: PubMed


We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to map the spatiotemporal evolution of cortical activity for visual word recognition. We show that for five-letter words, activity in the left hemisphere (LH) fusiform gyrus expands systematically in both the posterior-anterior and medial-lateral directions over the course of the first 500 ms after stimulus presentation. Contrary to what would be expected from cognitive models and hemodynamic studies, the component of this activity that spatially coincides with the visual word form area (VWFA) is not active until around 200 ms post-stimulus, and critically, this activity is preceded by and co-active with activity in parts of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, BA44/6). The spread of activity in the VWFA for words does not appear in isolation but is co-active in parallel with spread of activity in anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG, BA 21 and 38), posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG, BA37/39), and IFG.

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    • "Neuroimaging studies have shown that reading a word covertly or making a lexicality decision involves a large network of cortical structures (usually lateralised in the left hemisphere) including the occipito-temporal regions typically involved in visual recognition and the perisylvian speech network (Barca et al., 2011; Pammer et al., 2004; Wheat, Cornelissen, Frost, & Hansen, 2010). This body of evidence suggests that phonological information does not strictly derive from previous recruitment of orthographic information but that there is much more online integration between the two processes . "
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral and neuroimaging studies provide evidence of automatic activation of phonology (e.g., covert speech) during the recognition of lexical stimuli. Implicit processing of phonological information was investigated in a kinematic study of semantic categorization of pictures (session A) or words (session B). Participants clicked one of two items (target and distractor) based on their semantic congruency (artifact or natural) with a cued-word. Phonological similarity between cued-word and distractor was varied. The presence of the phonological distractor produced trajectories with greater curvature toward the competing semantic category than did the presence of a distractor not phonologically related. This suggests that the semantic categorization of pictorial and lexical stimuli is influenced by the automatic activation of phonological information. Trajectories' curvature reveals competition between partially activated phonological and semantic representations suggesting that phonological codes involved in linguistic processing influence the dynamic competition underlying the semantic categorization of lexical and pictorial stimuli.
    Journal of Cognitive Psychology 10/2015; DOI:10.1080/20445911.2015.1101117 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    • "For example , recall the evidence that Broca's area activity accompanies dorsal circuit activity early in reading development when children rely on decoding processes. In contrast, skilled readers who rarely use decoding exhibit activity in the ventral network that connect Broca's area and the VWFA (Price & Devlin, 2011; Woodhead et al., 2012; Pammer et al., 2004). In both the child studies and the adult studies, activity in Broca's area accompanied word recognition. "
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter addresses the observation that reading speed and reading intonation tend to develop together in typical readers, yet current theories of phonological processing do not ex-plain this developmental relationship. To explore the connection between prosody and fluency, I 0first discuss skilled reading processes and then turn to the development of reading fluency in children. Recent eye movement data from skilled readers indicates that automatically processing prosodic phonological information speeds word recognition during silent reading. After explicating the distinction between intentional decoding processes and automatic phonological precoding, I propose how precoding could shorten skilled word recognition time through a process termed prosodic constraint. A focused review of brain imaging studies discusses data consistent with prosodic constraint, and indicates the neural networks that could support it. Finally, I dis-cuss the roles that several phonological processes could play in developing reading fluency.
    The Fluent Brain, Edited by Edited by A. Khateb and I.B. Kochova, 08/2015; Springer-Verlag.
    • "Our findings are in line with studies examining nonclinical participants with dissociation proneness and also studies examining clinical participants with a dissociative disorder, which suggests that these populations are less efficient in suppressing both emotional and non-emotional distracting material (Freyd et al., 1998; DePrince and Freyd, 1999; Elzinga et al., 2000, 2003; Chiu et al., 2010, 2012). In the current study, after dissociation induction, BPD patients showed reduced activity in the fusiform gyrus, which has been shown to be involved in colour processing (Beauchamp et al., 1999; Chao and Martin, 1999; Kellenbach et al., 2001) and word recognition (Nobre et al., 1994; Pammer et al., 2004; Binder et al., 2006), among others. Also, the superior parietal cortex was less activated in BPD patients with dissociation induction than in BPD patients without dissociation induction. "
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence is heterogeneous regarding whether patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display disturbed emotional inhibition in the emotional Stroop task. Previous findings suggest that state dissociation may influence cognitive inhibition of task-irrelevant material, particularly with negative content. Our aim was to examine performance in an emotional Stroop task including negative, neutral, and positive words in BPD patients and healthy controls during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In advance, half of the BPD patients underwent a dissociation induction using script-driven imagery. BPD patients without dissociation induction showed behavioural performance comparable to that of healthy controls but displayed stronger neural responses, especially to positive stimuli, in the superior temporal gyrus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. BPD patients with dissociation induction showed overall slower and less accurate responses as well as increased reaction times for negative versus neutral words compared with BPD patients without dissociation induction. Moreover, they showed comparatively decreased neuronal activity in the fusiform gyrus and parietal cortices independent of valence, but elevated activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus in response to negative versus neutral words. In conclusion, experimentally induced dissociation in BPD was associated with inefficient cognitive inhibition, particularly of negative stimuli, in the emotional Stroop task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 06/2015; 233(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.05.018 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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