Locally delivered nanoencapsulated tyrphostin (AGL-2043) reduces neointima formation in balloon-injured rat carotid and stented porcine coronary arteries.
ABSTRACT Local delivery of antiproliferative drugs encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles (NP) has shown promise as an experimental strategy for preventing restenosis development. A novel PDGFRbeta-specific tyrphostin, AGL-2043, was formulated in polylactide-based nanoparticles and was administered intraluminally to the wall of balloon-injured rat carotid and stented pig coronary arteries. The disposition and elimination kinetics within the vessel wall, as well as the antirestenotic potential of the novel drug and delivery system, were evaluated. The efficacy and the local drug elimination kinetics were affected by the size of the NP and the drug-carrier binding mode. Despite similar arterial drug levels 90 min after delivery in rats, small NP were more efficacious in comparison to large NP (90 and 160 nm, respectively). AGL-2043 selectively inhibited vascular SMC in a dose-dependent manner. The antiproliferative effect of nanoencapsulated tyrphostin was considerably higher than that of surface-adsorbed drug. In the pig model, intramural delivery of AGL-2043 resulted in reduced in-stent neointima formation in the coronary arteries over control despite similar degrees of wall injury. The results of this study suggest that locally delivered tyrphostin AGL-2043 formulated in biodegradable NP may be applicable for antirestenotic therapy independent of stent design or type of injury.
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ABSTRACT: Biodegradable nanoparticles (NP) with a spherical diameter ranging from 70 to 160 nm were investigated for potential usefulness for the local intraluminal therapy of restenosis, the disease process responsible for arterial reobstruction following angioplasty. NPs containing a water-insoluble anti-proliferative agent U-86983 (U-86, Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI) were formulated from oil-water emulsions using biodegradable polymers such as poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and specific additives after particle formation, to enhance arterial retention using either heparin, didodecylmethylammonium bromide (DMAB), or fibrinogen, or combinations. Femoral and carotid arteries of male mongrel dogs were isolated in situ, and were then subjected to a balloon angioplasty. A NP suspension of a predetermined concentration was then infused into the artery for various durations. This was followed by a 30 min restoration of blood flow through the vessel. The arterial segments were excised and analyzed for drug levels. From the drug loading the NP and the drug levels in the artery, the quantity of nanoparticles retained was calculated and expressed as microgram per 10 mg dry arteries. In general, repeated short infusions of nanoparticle suspension (15 s x 4) were two-fold more effective in terms of higher arterial U-86 levels than a single prolonged infusion (60 s). A single 15 s infusion was not significantly different than a 60 s compared to non-modified NPs (39.2 +/- 2.5 and 49.1 +/- 2.4 vs. 21.5 +/- 0.6 micrograms/10 mg mean +/- s.e., respectively). A comparably enhanced NP uptake was noted with a combined heparin/DMAB modification. Increasing the concentration of NP in infusate from 5 to 30 mg ml-1 significantly increased arterial NP uptake level (from 22.5 +/- 3.5 to 83.7 +/- 1.4 micrograms/10 mg). Thus, the results support the view that modified nanoparticles along with optimized infusion conditions could enhance arterial wall drug concentrations of agents to treat restenosis.Journal of Controlled Release 08/1998; 54(2):201-11. · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The study was done to investigate the relationship between clinical restenosis and the relative angiographic location of the recurrent restenotic lesion, after treatment of in-stent restenosis with vascular brachytherapy in the Washington Radiation for In-Stent Restenosis Trial (WRIST). Intracoronary radiation therapy reduces recurrence of in-stent restenosis. We investigated the above objective in patients enrolled in WRIST. The WRIST study randomized 130 patients to double-blinded therapy with gamma irradiation (iridium-192 [(192)Ir]) versus placebo after interventional treatment of diffuse in-stent restenosis. After the intervention and at follow-up, three vessel segments were individually analyzed with quantitative coronary angiography: 1) the "stent," 2) the "radiation ribbon," and 3) the "ribbon+margin" segment (including 5 mm on either end of the injured or radiation-ribbon segment). Receiver operator curves (ROC) were used to assess the value of the follow-up percent diameter stenosis (DS) for each of the three analyzed segments in predicting target vessel revascularization (TVR). (192)Ir reduced recurrent restenosis (23.7% vs. 60.7%, p < 0.001) and the length of recurrent restenosis (8.99 +/- 4.34 mm vs. 17.54 +/- 10.48 mm, p < 0.001) at follow-up compared to placebo. Isolated stent edge (3.4%) and ribbon edge (1.7%) restenoses were infrequent in both groups. The best angiographic surrogate of TVR was the 50% follow-up DS obtained from the ribbon+margin analysis (ROC area 0.806). In WRIST, not only was (192)Ir therapy effective in reducing restenosis, but it also reduced the lesion length of treatment failures by 50%, and it was not associated with edge proliferation. The restenosis rate obtained from the vessel segment inclusive of the dose fall-off zones was the best correlate of TVR and should become a standard analysis site in all vascular brachytherapy trials.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2002; 39(2):274-80. · 14.09 Impact Factor
- Cardiovascular Research 03/2002; 53(2):292-3. · 5.94 Impact Factor