Placental pathology associated with fetal death in cattle inoculated with Neospora caninum by two different routes in early pregnancy.
ABSTRACT Pregnant cattle were inoculated with N. caninum strain NC-1 tachyzoites intravenously (iv) (group 1, n = 8) or subcutaneously (sc) (group 2, n = 8) at 70 days' gestation. Control animals (group 3; n = 8) received uninfected Vero cells iv. Two animals from each group were killed at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post-inoculation (dpi). Fetal mortality was 100% and 50%, respectively, in groups 1 and 2 from 28 dpi. In group 1 foci of degenerative fetal placental villi were observed at 14 dpi, with clusters of N. caninum tachyzoites in the affected mesenchyme. There was also inflammation of maternal septal tissues, with necrotic cell debris and serum exudate at the interstitium. At 28 dpi pregnancy had ended and the fetal cotyledons had become detached from the maternal caruncles. Immunohistochemically, particulate N. caninum antigen was detected in the cotyledons. At 42 and 56 dpi, fetal tissues had disappeared, the caruncles were greatly reduced in size, and the uterine epithelium had been largely restored. In group 2, lesions were either severe or absent ("all or nothing" response). In one animal carrying a dead fetus at 28 dpi, placentitis was much more severe than that seen in group 1 at 14 dpi. Lesions contained neutrophils, eosinophils and N. caninum antigen. In animals carrying dead fetuses at 42 and 56 dpi, fetal remains were found and the cotyledons contained N. caninum antigen. Antigen was also detected in fetal tissues. No significant pathological changes were detected in group 2 animals carrying live fetuses or any animal in group 3. Thus, N. caninum administered iv or sc in early pregnancy resulted in rapid fetal death, with parasite-associated lesions in the placenta and fetus. Of the two inoculation routes, the intravenous induced the more acute placental lesions and greater mortality.
Article: High rate of transplacental infection and transmission of Neospora caninum following experimental challenge of cattle at day 210 of gestation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the pathogenesis of neosporosis following a primary infection in late pregnancy, cattle were subcutaneously challenged with 5 x 108 Neospora caninum (NC1 isolate) tachyzoites at day 210 of gestation and serial necropsies were then carried out at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post-infection (dpi). No abortions occurred and all the foetuses were viable at the time of euthanasia. There was a high rate of vertical transmission, as parasites were detected by immunohistochemical labelling and PCR in all the foetuses from 28 dpi. Focal necrotic lesions were observed in the placentomes of the placenta from 28 dpi and showed resolution during later time points, denoted by infiltration of inflammatory cells at 42 dpi and fibrosis at 56 dpi. Foetuses at 28 and 42 dpi showed scarce and isolated lesions which are unlikely to represent a threat to foetal viability. No lesions were observed in the foetuses at 14 or 56 dpi suggesting control of the infection and resolution of the lesions by maternal and foetal immune responses. Once infection was established, it could not be cleared from the host and vertical transmission of the parasite occurred in all infected hosts. Parasite was detected in the placenta at 28 dpi, while in previous experimental infections of cattle at day 70 and 140 of gestation using the same challenge model, it was already present at day 14 post infection. This suggests that a change in the maternal immune response plays a crucial role in limiting the initial infection during the last term of pregnancy.Veterinary Research 12/2012; 43(1):83. · 4.06 Impact Factor