Effects of postnatal social isolation on hormonal and immune responses of pigs to an acute endotoxin challenge.
ABSTRACT Social stress during early postnatal life often results in long-term effects on neuroendocrine and immune adaptation mechanisms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the influence of a 2-h daily social isolation from Day 3 to Day 11 on the acute and long-term proinflammatory and neuroendocrine responses of piglets challenged with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 microg/kg body weight). Peripheral LPS administration significantly increased plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), ACTH and cortisol in isolated and control pigs. However, the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis after LPS stimulation was not significantly affected by isolation treatment, whereas the prior social isolation diminished the plasma TNF-alpha response to LPS 1 day as well as 45 days after the isolation period. The hippocampal TNF-alpha concentration in response to LPS was also reduced in priorly isolated pigs compared to control animals. Furthermore, the significant increase of TNF-alpha in the spleen caused by LPS was associated with a dramatic decrease in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding. The GR binding in hippocampus was increased in isolated pigs and was significantly decreased after LPS injection. In addition, the repeated isolation stressor was shown to increase hippocampal levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). The present results indicate that repeated social isolation of neonatal pigs may cause long-term effects on proinflammatory regulation at the periphery and in the brain following immune challenge with particular importance of TNF-alpha in mediating these interactions.
- SourceAvailable from: Bernhard T Baune[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Childhood adversity alters the predisposition to psychiatric disorders later in life. Those with psychiatric conditions and a history of early adversity exhibit a higher incidence of treatment resistance compared with individuals with no such history. Modulation of the influence early stress exerts over neurobiology may help to prevent the development of psychiatric disorders in some cases, while attenuating the extent of treatment resistance in those with established psychiatric disorders. This review aims to critically evaluate the ability of behavioural, environmental and pharmacologic interventions to modulate neurobiological changes induced by early stress in animal models. Databases were systematically searched to locate literature relevant to this review. Early adversity was defined as stress that resulted from manipulation of the mother-infant relationship. Analysis was restricted to animal models to enable characterisation of how a given intervention altered specific neurobiological changes induced by early stress. A wide variety of changes in neurobiology due to early stress are amenable to intervention. Behavioural interventions in childhood, exercise in adolescence and administration of epigenetic-modifying drugs throughout life appear to best modulate cellar and behavioural alterations induced by childhood adversity. Other pharmacotherapies, such as endocannabinoid system modulators, anti-inflammatories and antidepressants can also influence these neurobiological and behavioural changes that result from early stress, although findings are less consistent at present and require further investigation. Further work is required to examine the influence that behavioural interventions, exercise and epigenetic-modifying drugs exert over alterations that occur following childhood stress in human studies, before possible translational into clinical practice is possible.Translational psychiatry. 05/2014; 4:e390.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: How we react physiologically to stress has long been considered to have implications for our health. There is now persuasive evidence that individuals who show large cardiovascular reactions to stress are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, particularly hypertension. By implication, low reactivity is protective or benign. However, there is recent evidence that low reactivity may predict elevated risk for a range of adverse health outcomes, such as depression, obesity, poor self-reported health and compromised immunity. In addition, low cortisol and cardiovascular reactivity may be a characteristic of individuals with addictions to tobacco and alcohol, as well as those at risk of addiction and those who relapse from abstinence. Our ideas about reactivity may have to be revised in the light of such findings.Social and Personality Psychology Compass 09/2009; 3(5).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Early origins of adult disease may be defined as adversity or challenges during early life that alter physiological responses and prime the organism to chronic disease in adult life. Adverse childhood experiences or early life stress (ELS) may be considered a silent independent risk factor capable of predicting future cardiovascular disease risk. Maternal separation (MatSep) provides a suitable model to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the links between behavioural stress early in life and chronic cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. We will discuss the following: (i) adult cardiovascular outcomes in humans subjected to ELS, (ii) MatSep as an animal model of ELS as well as the limitations and advantages of this model in rodents and (iii) possible ELS-induced mechanisms that predispose individuals to greater cardiovascular risk. Overall, exposure to a behavioural stressor early in life sensitizes the response to a second stressor later in life, thus unmasking an exaggerated cardiovascular dysfunction that may influence quality of life and life expectancy in adulthood.Acta Physiologica 10/2013; · 4.25 Impact Factor