Frequent Transmission of Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte Escape Mutants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in the Highly HLA-A24-Positive Japanese Population

Division of Infectious Diseases, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.44). 08/2004; 78(16):8437-45. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.78.16.8437-8445.2004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although Japan is classified as a country with a low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), domestic sexual transmission has been increasing steadily. Because 70% of the Japanese population expresses HLA-A24 (genotype HLA-A*2402), we wished to assess the effect of the dominant HLA type on the evolution and transmission of HIV-1 among the Japanese population. Twenty-three out of 25 A24-positive Japanese patients had a Y-to-F substitution at the second position [Nef138-10(2F)] in an immunodominant A24-restricted CTL epitope in their HIV-1 nef gene (Nef138-10). None of 12 A24-negative Japanese hemophiliacs but 9 out of 16 patients infected through unprotected sexual intercourse had Nef138-10(2F) (P < 0.01). Two of two A24-positive but none of six A24-negative Australians had Nef138-10(2F). Nef138-10(2F) peptides bound well to the HLA-A*2402 heavy chain; however, Nef138-10(2F) was expressed poorly on the cell surface from the native protein. Thus, HIV-1 with Nef138-10(2F) appears to be a cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte escape mutant and has been transmitted frequently by sexual contact among the highly A24-positive Japanese population.

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Available from: Noriaki Hosoya, Nov 21, 2014
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    • "Two were Nef135L and one was Nef135W. These results were consistent with our earlier findings [4]. Intriguingly, none of the eight patients with Nef135Y exhibited a Nef126-10-specific response, while all of them exhibited a Nef134-10-specific response (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test) (Figure 1C, left). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I restricted Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs) exert substantial evolutionary pressure on HIV-1, as evidenced by the reproducible selection of HLA-restricted immune escape mutations in the viral genome. An escape mutation from tyrosine to phenylalanine at the 135th amino acid (Y135F) of the HIV-1 nef gene is frequently observed in patients with HLA-A*24:02, an HLA Class I allele expressed in ~70% of Japanese persons. The selection of CTL escape mutations could theoretically result in the de novo creation of novel epitopes, however, the extent to which such dynamic “CTL epitope switching” occurs in HIV-1 remains incompletely known. Results Two overlapping epitopes in HIV-1 nef, Nef126-10 and Nef134-10, elicit the most frequent CTL responses restricted by HLA-A*24:02. Thirty-five of 46 (76%) HLA-A*24:02-positive patients harbored the Y135F mutation in their plasma HIV-1 RNA. Nef codon 135 plays a crucial role in both epitopes, as it represents the C-terminal anchor for Nef126-10 and the N-terminal anchor for Nef134-10. While the majority of patients with 135F exhibited CTL responses to Nef126-10, none harboring the “wild-type” (global HIV-1 subtype B consensus) Y135 did so, suggesting that Nef126-10 is not efficiently presented in persons harboring Y135. Consistent with this, peptide binding and limiting dilution experiments confirmed F, but not Y, as a suitable C-terminal anchor for HLA-A*24:02. Moreover, experiments utilizing antigen specific CTL clones to recognize endogenously-expressed peptides with or without Y135F indicated that this mutation disrupted the antigen expression of Nef134-10. Critically, the selection of Y135F also launched the expression of Nef126-10, indicating that the latter epitope is created as a result of escape within the former. Conclusions Our data represent the first example of the de novo creation of a novel overlapping CTL epitope as a direct result of HLA-driven immune escape in a neighboring epitope. The robust targeting of Nef126-10 following transmission (or in vivo selection) of HIV-1 containing Y135F may explain in part the previously reported stable plasma viral loads over time in the Japanese population, despite the high prevalence of both HLA-A*24:02 and Nef-Y135F in circulating HIV-1 sequences.
    Retrovirology 05/2014; 11(1):38. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-11-38 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    • "Once the virus infects a host, it rapidly evolves and evades the host cellular immune response. Viral adaptation to the HLA-restricted immune response and the selection of viral mutations associated with the loss of the antiviral immune response have been described in both acute and chronic HIV-1 infections at the individual level [9], [10]. Recently, viral adaptations to HLA have also been reported at the population level [11], [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune response is one of the major factors determining the genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There are few population-based analyses of the amino acid variations associated with the host HLA type and their clinical relevance for the Asian population. Here, we identified HLA-associated polymorphisms in the HIV-1 CRF01_AE Gag protein in infected married couples, and examined the consequences of these HLA-selected mutations after transmission to HLA-unmatched recipients. One hundred sixteen HIV-1-infected couples were recruited at a government hospital in northern Thailand. The 1.7-kb gag gene was amplified and directly sequenced. We identified 56 associations between amino acid variations in Gag and HLA alleles. Of those amino acid variations, 35 (62.5%) were located within or adjacent to regions reported to be HIV-specific CTL epitopes restricted by the relevant HLA. Interestingly, a significant number of HLA-associated amino acid variations appear to be unique to the CRF01_AE-infected Thai population. Variations in the capsid protein (p24) had the strongest associations with the viral load and CD4 cell count. The mutation and reversion rates after transmission to a host with a different HLA environment varied considerably. The p24 T242N variant escape from B57/58 CTL had a significant impact on the HIV-1 viral load of CRF01_AE-infected patients. HLA-associated amino acid mutations and the CTL selection pressures on the p24 antigen appear to have the most significant impact on HIV replication in a CRF01_AE-infected Asian population. HLA-associated mutations with a low reversion rate accumulated as a footprint in this Thai population. The novel HLA-associated mutations identified in this study encourage us to acquire more extensive information about the viral dynamics of HLA-associated amino acid polymorphisms in a given population as effective CTL vaccine targets.
    PLoS ONE 06/2010; 5(6):e11179. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0011179 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "PBMCs from each patient were used as effectors cells. The protocol of Elispot assay was described previously [Furutsuki et al., 2004]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Immuno-genetherapy using dendritic cells (DCs) can be applied to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Sendai virus (SeV) has unique features such as cytoplasmic replication and high protein expression as a vector for genetic manipulation. In this study, we compared the efficiency of inducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and HIV-1 gene expression in human monocyte-derived DCs between SeV and adenovirus (AdV). Human monocyte-derived DCs infected with SeV showed the maximum gene expression 24 hr after infection at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 2. Although SeV vector showed higher cytopathic effect on DCs than AdV, SeV vector induced maximum gene expression earlier and at much lower MOI. In terms of cell surface phenotype, both SeV and AdV vectors induced DC maturation. DCs infected with SeV as well as AdV elicited HIV-1 specific T-cell responses detected by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot). Our data suggest that SeV could be one of the reliable vectors for immuno-genetherapy for HIV-1 infected patients.
    Journal of Medical Virology 03/2008; 80(3):373-82. DOI:10.1002/jmv.21052 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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