The development of semicircular canals in the inner ear: role of FGFs in sensory cristae
ABSTRACT In the vertebrate inner ear, the ability to detect angular head movements lies in the three semicircular canals and their sensory tissues, the cristae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the three canals are largely unknown. Malformations of this vestibular apparatus found in zebrafish and mice usually involve both canals and cristae. Although there are examples of mutants with only defective canals, few mutants have normal canals without some prior sensory tissue specification, suggesting that the sensory tissues, cristae, might induce the formation of their non-sensory components, the semicircular canals. We fate-mapped the vertical canal pouch in chicken that gives rise to the anterior and posterior canals, using a fluorescent, lipophilic dye (DiI), and identified a canal genesis zone adjacent to each prospective crista that corresponds to the Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2)-positive domain in the canal pouch. Using retroviruses or beads to increase Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) for gain-of-function and beads soaked with the FGF inhibitor SU5402 for loss-of-function experiments, we show that FGFs in the crista promote canal development by upregulating Bmp2. We postulate that FGFs in the cristae induce a canal genesis zone by inducing/upregulating Bmp2 expression. Ectopic FGF treatments convert some of the cells in the canal pouch from the prospective common crus to a canal-like fate. Thus, we provide the first molecular evidence whereby sensory organs direct the development of the associated non-sensory components, the semicircular canals, in vertebrate inner ears.
SourceAvailable from: Raj K Ladher[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Various cellular replacement therapies using in vitro generated cells to replace damaged tissue have been proposed as strategies to alleviate hearing loss. All such therapies must involve a complete understanding of the earliest steps in inner ear development; its induction as a thickened plate of cells in the non-neural, surface ectoderm of the embryo, to its internalization as an otocyst embedded in the head mesenchyme of the embryo. Such knowledge informs researchers addressing the feasibility of the proposed strategy and present alternatives if needed. In this review we describe the mechanisms of inner ear induction, concentrating on the factors that steer the fate of ectoderm into precursors of the inner ear. Induction then leads to inner ear morphogenesis and we describe the cellular changes that occur as the inner ear is converted from a superficial placode to an internalized otocyst, and how they are coordinated with a particular emphasis on how the signaling environment surrounding the inner ear influences these processes.Frontiers in Pharmacology 02/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2015.00019
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ABSTRACT: The vertebrate inner ear is a morphologically complex sensory organ comprised of two compartments, the dorsal vestibular apparatus and the ventral cochlear duct, required for motion and sound detection, respectively. Fgf10, in addition to Fgf3, is necessary for the earliest stage of otic placode induction, but continued expression of Fgf10 in the developing otic epithelium, including the prosensory domain and later in Kolliker's organ, suggests additional roles for this gene during morphogenesis of the labyrinth. While loss of Fgf10 was implicated previously in semicircular canal agenesis, we show that Fgf10−/+ embryos also exhibit a reduction or absence of the posterior semicircular canal, revealing a dosage-sensitive requirement for FGF10 in vestibular development. In addition, we show that Fgf10−/− embryos have previously unappreciated defects of cochlear morphogenesis, including a somewhat shortened duct, and, surprisingly, a substantially narrower duct. The mutant cochlear epithelium lacks Reissner's membrane and a large portion of the outer sulcus--two non-contiguous, non-sensory domains. Marker gene analyses revealed effects on Reissner's membrane as early as E12.5-E13.5 and on the outer sulcus by E15.5, stages when Fgf10 is expressed in close proximity to Fgfr2b, but these effects were not accompanied by changes in epithelial cell proliferation or death. These data indicate a dual role for Fgf10 in cochlear development: to regulate outgrowth of the duct and subsequently as a bidirectional signal that sequentially specifies Reissner's membrane and outer sulcus non-sensory domains. These findings may help to explain the hearing loss sometimes observed in LADD syndrome subjects with FGF10 mutations.Developmental Biology 01/2015; 400(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2015.01.015 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Wnt signaling is a highly conserved pathway crucial for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Secreted Wnt ligands bind Frizzled receptors to regulate diverse processes such as axis patterning, cell division, and cell fate specification. They also serve to govern self-renewal of somatic stem cells in several adult tissues. The complexity of the pathway can be attributed to the myriad of Wnt and Frizzled combinations as well as its diverse context-dependent functions. In the developing mouse inner ear, Wnt signaling plays diverse roles, including specification of the otic placode and patterning of the otic vesicle. At later stages, its activity governs sensory hair cell specification, cell cycle regulation, and hair cell orientation. In regenerating sensory organs from non-mammalian species, Wnt signaling can also regulate the extent of proliferative hair cell regeneration. This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of Wnt signaling and Wnt-responsive cells in hair cell development and regeneration. We also discuss possible future directions and the potential application and limitation of Wnt signaling in augmenting hair cell regeneration.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 03/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00066 · 4.18 Impact Factor