Cervical laminoplasty: use of a novel titanium plate to maintain canal expansion--surgical technique.

Emory Spine Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques (Impact Factor: 1.77). 09/2004; 17(4):265-71. DOI:10.1097/01.bsd.0000095401.27687.c0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cervical laminoplasty is a technique used to achieve spinal cord decompression in cases of myelopathy or myeloradiculopathy. The most common reason for failure of this technique is restenosis due to hinge closure. Various techniques have been employed to hold the laminar "door" open while the body heals the lamina hinge in the new expanded position. Ideally, a method of achieving laminar fixation should be technically straightforward, provide secure laminar fixation, and be rapid to minimize the risk of iatrogenic injuries, blood loss, and operative time. The authors describe the use of a novel plate designed to accomplish these goals. The technical issues relevant to performing the laminoplasty and securing the laminae are discussed. The plate has been proven biomechanically to be equal or superior to the currently used techniques. The use of this plate will allow the patient to engage in an early active rehabilitation protocol-while minimizing the risk of restenosis of the canal. This may ultimately lead to better preservation of motion and decreased axial neck pain following laminoplasty.

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    ABSTRACT: Prospective clinical series. To evaluate the ability of plate-only laminoplasty to achieve stable laminar arch reconstruction and to determine the rate and time course with which bony healing occurs in such constructs. Reconstruction of a stable laminar arch with sufficient room for the decompressed spinal cord is a desired goal when performing cervical laminoplasty for myelopathy. Traditional forms of laminoplasty fixation, such as sutures, bone struts, and ceramic spacers, may be associated with complications including loss of fixation, dislodgement with neurologic compromise, and premature laminoplasty closure. Plates, in contrast, provide more rigid fixation. Plate-only laminoplasty is gaining popularity as a method of laminoplasty fixation, but there is little data on its effectiveness. Fifty-four patients who underwent open door laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy and had available postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans formed the basis of this study. In all cases, a 4-mm round burr was used to create the hinge at the junction of the lateral mass and lamina by completely removing the dorsal cortex and thinning the ventral cortex until a greenstick deformation of the hinge could be produced. Laminoplasty plates were used as the sole method of fixation. No supplemental bone graft struts were used on the plated side, and the hinge side was not bone grafted. Axial CT scans obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively were assessed for plate complications and bony healing of the hinge. No plate failures, dislodgements, or premature closures occurred in any of the levels at any time postoperatively. Computed tomography scan review demonstrated that 55% of levels were healed at 3 months, 77% at 6 months, and 93% at 12 months. At each timepoint, C6 and C7 had the highest hinge healing rates. Laminar screw backout was seen in 5/217 (2.3%) of levels, but was not associated with plate dislodgement, laminoplasty closure, or neurologic consequences, and did not occur in any case in which 2 laminar screws had been placed. Plate-only laminoplasty provided stable reconstruction of an expanded laminar arch with no failures, dislodgements, adverse neurologic consequences, or premature closures in 217 levels. Ninety-three percent of hinges demonstrated radiographic union at 12 months, and even those that did not heal by CT scan criteria maintained patent expansion of the spinal canal without adverse neurologic consequences. Supplemental bone graft does not appear necessary when plated laminoplasty is performed.
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    ABSTRACT: A prospective follow-up study. To elucidate the impact of lamina closure on long-term outcomes after open-door laminoplasty. In a previous study, we did not find significant associations between lamina closure and short-term outcomes. METHODS.: Of the original cohort of 82 patients who underwent open-door laminoplasty, 69 were included in this study (52 men, 17 women; mean age, 60.9 yr; mean follow-up, 6.2 yr; 56 with spondylosis or disc herniation, 13 with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament). Lamina closure was previously observed in 23 of these patients (closure group) but not in 46 (nonclosure group). The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores and Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire were recorded. The JOA score was 9.9 ± 3.2 in the closure group and 11.2 ± 2.3 in the nonclosure group before surgery (P = 0.1), 13.8 ± 2.3 and 13.8 ± 2.2 at 1.8 years (P = 0.99), and 13.6 ± 2.2 and 14.2 ± 2.7 at final follow-up (P = 0.29). The recovery rate of the JOA scores was 56.7 ± 30.0% and 46.7 ± 29.2% at 1.8 years (P = 0.22) and 51.0 ± 32.5 and 57.6 ± 31.1 at the final follow-up (P = 0.42). The subdomains assessed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire at follow-up were cervical spine function, 68.7 ± 27.5 in the closure group and 67.7 ± 30.0 in the nonclosure group (P = 0.93); upper extremity function, 78.6 ± 24.3 and 87.6 ± 15.4 (P = 0.40); lower extremity function, 69.9 ± 26.0 and 73.9 ± 22.5 (P = 0.68); bladder function, 74.6 ± 22.6 and 84.9 ± 29.2 (P = 0.18); and quality of life, 53.9 ± 25.3 and 56.2 ± 18.1 (P = 0.96). Lamina closure did not significantly impact the long-term surgical outcomes of laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy. Although not statistically significant, the recovery rate tended to decline in the closure group compared with the nonclosure group during the long-term follow-up period, and the utilization of a laminar retention device to prevent the laminar closure should be considered.
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    ABSTRACT: Background. One of the important complications of open-door laminoplasty is a premature laminoplasty closure. In order to prevent premature laminoplasty closure many techniques have been described and a titanium miniplate is one of the instruments to maintain cervical canal expansion. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of titanium miniplates on the union rate for open-door laminoplasty. Materials and Methods. We performed open-door laminoplasty in 68 levels of fourteen patients using maxillofacial titanium miniplates. Axial computed tomography scans were obtained at 6 months postoperatively to evaluate the union rates of the hinge side. The Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score was used to compare the clinical outcomes before and after surgery. Results. Computed tomography scan data was available on 68 levels in 14 patients. There were no premature closures of the hinge or miniplate dislodgements. The union rate on the hinge side was 70.5% (48/68). The mean JOA score increased significantly from 7.0 before surgery to 10.2, 12.2, and 13.0 after surgery at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. Conclusion. Open-door laminoplasty using maxillofacial titanium miniplates can provide union rates comparable to other techniques. It can maintain canal expansion without failures, dislodgements, and premature closures.
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