Central and peripheral actions of somatostatin on the growth hormone-IGF-I axis.
ABSTRACT Somatostatin (SRIF) analogs provide safe and effective therapy for acromegaly. In a proportion of patients, however, SRIF analogs may lead to discordant growth hormone (GH) and IGF-I suppression, which suggests a more complex mechanism than attributable to inhibition of GH release alone. To elucidate whether SRIF acts peripherally on the GH-IGF-I axis, we showed that rat hepatocytes express somatostatin receptor subtypes-2 and -3 and that IGF-I mRNA and protein levels were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by administration of octreotide. The inhibitory effect of SRIF was not apparent without added GH and in the presence of GH was specific for IGF-I induction and did not inhibit GH-induced c-myc or extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Pertussis toxin treatment of hepatocytes incubated with GH and SRIF, or with GH and octreotide, abrogated the inhibitory effect on GH-induced IGF-I, which confirms the requirement for the inhibitory G-protein. Treatment with SRIF and GH increased protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity and inhibited signal transducer and activator of transcription-5b (STAT5b) phosphorylation and nuclear localization. Octreotide also inhibited GH-stimulated IGF-I protein content of ex vivo-perfused rat livers. The results demonstrate that SRIF acts both centrally and peripherally to control the GH-IGF-I axis, providing a mechanistic explanation for SRIF analog action in treating patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
Article: Graft-versus-host disease: implications from basic immunology for prophylaxis and treatment.Cancer treatment and research 02/1997; 77:87-97.
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ABSTRACT: The in-vivo performance of a clonidine transdermal therapeutic system (TTS 3.5 cm2, 2.5 mg) was assessed in 12 healthy normal volunteers. Particular attention was paid to the rate and extent of absorption of clonidine from the TTS dosage form by reference to a 2 h i.v. infusion of clonidine. The absolute bioavailability of clonidine from the TTS dosage form was found to be approximately 60% with clonidine being released from the TTS at a relatively reproducible and consistent rate of 4.32 micrograms h-1 over a 7-day period.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 02/1989; 41(1):17-21. · 2.17 Impact Factor