One-leg stance in healthy young and elderly adults: A measure of postural steadiness?
ABSTRACT To investigate postural steadiness during 30 s of one-leg stance in healthy young and elderly adults, by analysing the pattern of the ground reaction force variability.
A laboratory set-up was used to analyse the variability of the ground reaction forces in relation to time as a measure of postural steadiness.
The one-leg stance test is a measure considered to assess postural steadiness in a static position by a temporal measurement. The common notion is that a better postural steadiness, i.e. less force variability, allows for longer time standing on one leg. However, there is lack of evidence how postural steadiness during one-leg stance changes over time.
Twenty-eight healthy elderly and 28 healthy young adults were tested by means of force plates assessing ground reaction forces while performing one-leg stance.
During one-leg stance, two phases could be identified in both groups: First a dynamic phase, a rapid decrease of force variability, and thereafter a static phase, maintaining a certain level of force variability. During the first 5 s of one-leg stance the force variability decreased significantly more in the young group resulting in a lower force variability level during the static phase than in the elderly.
The difficulties in maintaining the static position in elderly seems dependent on the reduced initial decrease in force variability and/or musculoskeletal components. We suggest that the first 5 s are crucial when assessing balance during one-leg stance.
- SourceAvailable from: Louisa D Raisbeck
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- "We believe that our study provides a relationship between the results of Parreira et al. (2013) and Jonsson et al. (2004) who assumed that the difficulties of the older adults to maintain the SLS position depend on the initial five-second time frame. Our results show that older adults have not only increased initial values, but also less ability to reduce sway during the initial phase of SLS. "
ABSTRACT: Balance deteriorates with age and fall related injuries are often linked to long-term disability and loss of independence in older adults. This study focuses on the task of establishing single leg stance, which requires the ability to shift the center of mass onto the supporting leg.Methods Fifteen younger adults and eight older adults participated in the study. Subjects performed a step with self-selected step length onto the force plate to establish a single leg stance (SLS) on their dominant leg. The first four seconds of SLS were analyzed to investigate age related temporal dependencies of sway area, sway velocity, anterior-posterior sway, and medio-lateral sway.FindingsYounger adults show a rapid decrease of sway area, anterior-posterior sway, medio-lateral sway, and sway velocity within the first fours seconds while older adults show elevated initial values in anterior-posterior sway and sway velocity and less decrease over time.InterpretationOlder adults have not only diminished initial sway, but also less ability to control sway during the initial phase of single leg stance. The early phase of single leg stance is rather dynamic in older adults compared to younger adults who maintain their balance after three seconds with small adjustments.Clinical Biomechanics 11/2014; 30(1). DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2014.10.010 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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- "2.1.4. Lower limb test protocols The SLS    "
ABSTRACT: The measurement of recovery after burns to the lower limbs is hampered by an absence validated injury specific tools. This research aimed to select and validate a battery of outcome measures of recovery after lower limb burn injury (LLBI). Reliability study: Reliability of the single leg stance (SLS), the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and the tandem walk (TW) tests were measured using a test-retest trial involving 28 patients with LLBI. Validity study: Clinical data from 172 patients with LLBI were used to compare changes in each LL outcome measure with changes in the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B). All tests, except the SLS test with eyes closed, demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability (ICCs=0.81-0.93). The TUG and the TW-forwards tests were shown to be valid and to provide additional information to the BSHS-B when combined as a battery. The TW-backwards test was redundant while the SLS and ankle DF measures did not correlate highly with the BSHS-B. This study shows that the TUG test and the TWF are reliable and valid in the burns population and along with the BSHS-B form a useful test battery for measuring recovery from LLBI.Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 09/2010; 36(6):780-6. DOI:10.1016/j.burns.2009.10.019 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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- "Single leg standing is a more unstable posture as the center of mass is located high and the base of support is narrow relative to double leg standing. The capability to sustain a single leg standing position is required for many activities of daily living (Jonsson et al, 2004) and as such, single leg standing has been implemented for clinical tests and intervention in previous studies (Fritz and George, 2000; Liebenson, 2005; Tidstrand and Horneij, 2009). However, the effects of lumbar stabilization on muscle activity and the velocity of the center of pressure (COP) during single leg standing have not been extensively studied. "
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lumbar stabilization on both trunk and lower limb muscle activity and center of pressure (COP) in single leg standing. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to collect muscle activity data, the mean velocity of COP was measured using a force plate, and a pressure biofeedback unit was used for lumbar stabilization training. The findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1) The EMG activity of the erector spinae decreased significantly and the activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique, gluteus maximus, and gluteus medius increased significantly with lumbar stabilization single leg standing. 2) No differences in activity in the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, and medial hamstrings were found with single leg standing. 3) The mean velocity of COP in the antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions in the lumbar stabilization single leg standing decreased significantly compared with the preferred single leg standing. The findings of this study therefore indicate that lumbar stabilization can facilitate the co-activation of deep stabilization and global muscles that improve postural control capability during single leg standing.01/2010; 17(4).