The giant fornix syndrome: an unrecognized cause of chronic, relapsing, grossly purulent conjunctivitis.
ABSTRACT To describe a group of elderly patients presenting with chronic, relapsing, copiously purulent conjunctivitis, in which the condition was often perpetuated by the sequestration of a large number of bacteria on a protein coagulum lodged in the recesses of a large upper conjunctival fornix.
Retrospective review of a noncomparative case series, drawn from patients attending the lacrimal clinic at Moorfields Eye Hospital.
Characterization of this unrecognized syndrome and its response to treatment.
Twelve patients (10 female) presented between the ages of 77 and 93 years (mean, 85; median, 86) with a history of chronic relapsing bacterial conjunctivitis affecting, with 2 exceptions, just one eye. All had experienced multiple episodes of markedly purulent conjunctivitis and chronic ocular discharge for between 8 and 48 months (mean, 23.5; median, 24) before referral, and the patients had received multiple courses of treatment. Three had successful external dacryocystorhinostomy (for nasolacrimal duct occlusion) before the final diagnosis of giant fornix syndrome was made, 9 had developed corneal vascularization and scarring before referral, and 5 had suffered prior spontaneous corneal perforation or thinning. All patients had deep upper conjunctival fornices in association with the changes of age-related dehiscence of the levator muscle aponeurosis. Copious amounts of thick, purulent debris and a yellow coagulum were lodged in the depths of the upper fornix-this debris universally culturing Staphylococcus aureus. The condition settled rapidly on appropriate systemic antibiotics (ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin), intensive topical antibiotics, and high-dose, high-potency steroids; some patients required repeated treatment or needed to continue the use of a single drop of a combined steroid-antibiotic to prevent relapse.
The capacious upper fornix of the elderly may harbor a coagulum colonized by S. aureus, leading to chronic conjunctivitis that may lead to severe sight impairment due to toxic keratopathy and secondary corneal vascularization.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:: To describe a novel surgical treatment for patients with chronic relapsing conjunctivitis, corneal epitheliopathy, and ptosis secondary to giant fornix syndrome. METHODS:: A retrospective case series was performed looking at the presence or absence of preoperative symptoms of eye irritation, tearing, blurry vision, and discharge in 6 patients diagnosed with giant fornix syndrome. Their examination findings were noted, and all patients underwent an extensive conjunctivoplasty with resection of redundant forniceal conjunctiva with subconjunctival antibiotics. Final visual acuity, symptoms, and examination findings were noted with a minimum follow up of 9 months. RESULTS:: Six patients were treated from November 2009 to November 2011. Duration of symptoms ranged from 3 to 40 months. Four patients were women while 2 were men, with age ranging from 61 to 85 years. Common symptoms were severe mucopurulent discharge, eye redness, tearing, and irritation with examination findings of severe conjunctival discharge and injection, corneal epitheliopathy, upper eyelid ptosis, and a deep upper and lower eyelid fornix. Most patients had undergone previous treatments with topical and/or oral antibiotics or steroids. All patients underwent surgical intervention using the surgical technique to be described with resolution of their symptoms, and even an improvement of 2 or more lines of best corrected visual acuity (3 of 5 patients). CONCLUSIONS:: The authors' novel surgical technique helps restore the abnormal anatomy found in patients with giant fornix syndrome and thus, helps resolve chronic relapsing conjunctivitis and surface disease associated with this often underdiagnosed condition. Further studies are needed to evaluate the risk of entropion and dry eye syndrome due to the modification of the posterior lamella.Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery 11/2012; · 0.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical course of a patient requiring ophthalmic care for entropion and fungal keratitis in the setting of undiagnosed enophthalmos after previous ventriculoperitoneal shunting consistent with silent brain syndrome. Case report. A 33-year-old man who had a history of ventriculoperitoneal shunting for an encephalocele during infancy presented because of ocular irritation and entropion, which was presumed to be entirely due to a chemical injury he had sustained 2 years before. He underwent 2 upper eyelid entropion repairs and developed fungal aspergilloma keratitis in the postoperative period. He underwent 2 penetrating keratoplasties and a limbal stem cell transplant but had complications with reinfection of the graft, eventually leading to a prephthisical painful eye. During enucleation, an aspergilloma was found within an enlarged superior fornix. Computed tomographic scan revealed severe enophthalmos with air between the lids and the globe, which was consistent with silent brain syndrome. In patients with silent brain syndrome, the lack of apposition between the eyelids and the globe results in entropion, trichiasis, lagophthalmos, and ocular irritation. This can complicate entropion repair and the severity of infectious keratitis. We also propose that the enlarged fornices seen in silent brain syndrome can also serve as a reservoir for infection, similar to the pathogenesis seen in the giant fornix syndrome.Cornea 02/2012; 31(9):1065-7. · 1.75 Impact Factor
- Eye 01/2007; 20(12):1481-3. · 1.82 Impact Factor