The giant fornix syndrome: an unrecognized cause of chronic, relapsing, grossly purulent conjunctivitis.
ABSTRACT To describe a group of elderly patients presenting with chronic, relapsing, copiously purulent conjunctivitis, in which the condition was often perpetuated by the sequestration of a large number of bacteria on a protein coagulum lodged in the recesses of a large upper conjunctival fornix.
Retrospective review of a noncomparative case series, drawn from patients attending the lacrimal clinic at Moorfields Eye Hospital.
Characterization of this unrecognized syndrome and its response to treatment.
Twelve patients (10 female) presented between the ages of 77 and 93 years (mean, 85; median, 86) with a history of chronic relapsing bacterial conjunctivitis affecting, with 2 exceptions, just one eye. All had experienced multiple episodes of markedly purulent conjunctivitis and chronic ocular discharge for between 8 and 48 months (mean, 23.5; median, 24) before referral, and the patients had received multiple courses of treatment. Three had successful external dacryocystorhinostomy (for nasolacrimal duct occlusion) before the final diagnosis of giant fornix syndrome was made, 9 had developed corneal vascularization and scarring before referral, and 5 had suffered prior spontaneous corneal perforation or thinning. All patients had deep upper conjunctival fornices in association with the changes of age-related dehiscence of the levator muscle aponeurosis. Copious amounts of thick, purulent debris and a yellow coagulum were lodged in the depths of the upper fornix-this debris universally culturing Staphylococcus aureus. The condition settled rapidly on appropriate systemic antibiotics (ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin), intensive topical antibiotics, and high-dose, high-potency steroids; some patients required repeated treatment or needed to continue the use of a single drop of a combined steroid-antibiotic to prevent relapse.
The capacious upper fornix of the elderly may harbor a coagulum colonized by S. aureus, leading to chronic conjunctivitis that may lead to severe sight impairment due to toxic keratopathy and secondary corneal vascularization.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical and histopathological features of inflammatory lesions of the lateral canthal subconjunctival area. This is a retrospective case series of 12 patients with inflammatory subconjunctival masses in the lateral canthal area. All patients included in this study were treated at Seoul National University Hospital or Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between 2006 and 2012. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. Histopathologic findings were thoroughly reviewed. There was a woman predominance in the study group (10:2), and the median age at presentation was 39 years (range 33-70). Common symptoms included conjunctival injection, sticky discharge, and pain or discomfort. Histopathologically, all lesions originated from ductules of the lacrimal gland. Two cases showed cysts containing clear fluid with mild inflammation. One case showed lacrimal ductulitis without cyst formation. Nine cases showed lacrimal ductal cysts with varying periductal inflammation, and the contents were pinkish, amorphous materials in 7 cases. Embedded cilia were found in 8 cases. Inflammatory lesions of the lateral canthal subconjunctival area all originated from lacrimal gland ductules, showing a variable histopathologic spectrum of inflammation and cyst formation. Cilia impaction was a very frequently observed finding.Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery 30(3):251-256. · 0.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:: To describe a novel surgical treatment for patients with chronic relapsing conjunctivitis, corneal epitheliopathy, and ptosis secondary to giant fornix syndrome. METHODS:: A retrospective case series was performed looking at the presence or absence of preoperative symptoms of eye irritation, tearing, blurry vision, and discharge in 6 patients diagnosed with giant fornix syndrome. Their examination findings were noted, and all patients underwent an extensive conjunctivoplasty with resection of redundant forniceal conjunctiva with subconjunctival antibiotics. Final visual acuity, symptoms, and examination findings were noted with a minimum follow up of 9 months. RESULTS:: Six patients were treated from November 2009 to November 2011. Duration of symptoms ranged from 3 to 40 months. Four patients were women while 2 were men, with age ranging from 61 to 85 years. Common symptoms were severe mucopurulent discharge, eye redness, tearing, and irritation with examination findings of severe conjunctival discharge and injection, corneal epitheliopathy, upper eyelid ptosis, and a deep upper and lower eyelid fornix. Most patients had undergone previous treatments with topical and/or oral antibiotics or steroids. All patients underwent surgical intervention using the surgical technique to be described with resolution of their symptoms, and even an improvement of 2 or more lines of best corrected visual acuity (3 of 5 patients). CONCLUSIONS:: The authors' novel surgical technique helps restore the abnormal anatomy found in patients with giant fornix syndrome and thus, helps resolve chronic relapsing conjunctivitis and surface disease associated with this often underdiagnosed condition. Further studies are needed to evaluate the risk of entropion and dry eye syndrome due to the modification of the posterior lamella.Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery 11/2012; · 0.69 Impact Factor
Article: The coming age of enophthalmos.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many factors are known to affect the health of the ocular surface. Enophthalmos is an often-overlooked component of ocular surface disease, and its prevalence is likely on the rise. This review outlines the many causes of enophthalmos, summarizes recent literature describing its relation to the health of the conjunctiva and cornea, and reviews new ways to treat it in clinical practice. The terms giant fornix syndrome, senile sunken upper lids, and prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy have recently been coined to describe newly recognized syndromes associated with enophthalmos. Many of these syndromes can lead to ocular surface disease and are becoming more prevalent as the population ages. With an understanding of the causes of enophthalmos and its relation to the health of the ocular surface, an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan can be made for patients presenting with periorbital and ocular surface disease.Current opinion in ophthalmology 07/2013; · 2.64 Impact Factor