DNA damage in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) from Göteborg harbour
The relationship between DNA damage and the exposure of marine organisms to environmental contaminants was examined in the Göteborg harbour area. This research is part of a wider ecotoxicological study planned to evaluate the biological impact of chemical contamination in the River Göta estuary, following a bunker oil (10-100 tonnes) spill occurred in June 2003. Here we present data on the DNA strand breaks derived using the comet assay and the presence of apoptotic cells using the diffusion assay in nucleated erythrocytes of the eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) from the study area and at a clean reference site. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites were also analyzed in the bile of exposed fish. The results showed a high level of damaged DNA, paralleled by a peak in bile PAH metabolites, in fish from the most impacted site, 3 weeks after the oil spill. A significant recovery was observed in specimens from the spill site, 5 months later, but not in fish caught in the middle part of Göteborg harbour, which is chronically subjected to heavy chemical pollution. The levels of apoptic cells did not show any marked variations, but a significant recovery was observed in fish from the oil impacted site 5 months after the spill.
Available from: Bethanie Carney Almroth
- "Several additional characteristics of this species make it suitable for field studies, e.g., the fish are relatively stationary, making it possible to correlate exposure conditions to physiological responses in wild fish, and the viviparous nature of their reproduction allows for studies addressing reproduction and maternal effects. This species has been used in Swedish biomonitoring programs for more than 20 years as a sentinel species for environmental pollution (Vetemaa et al. 1997; Ronisz et al. 1998; Larsson et al. 2000; Frenzilli et al. 2004; Carney Almroth et al. 2005; Ronisz et al. 2005; Sturve et al. 2005; Gercken et al. 2006), resulting in considerable amounts of data concerning its basic physiology, responses to pollutant exposure, and consistent information describing the reference sites. "
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ABSTRACT: Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Göteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Göteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during "normal" conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 05/2014; 21(24). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-2890-z · 2.83 Impact Factor
Available from: Lucia Rocco
- "The blood was collected using the same procedure as that used for the micronucleus test and placed on ice until it was required. The test was performed according to Frenzilli et al. (2004) and Rocco et al. (2010a). In the cells that had accumulated damage, the alkaline treatment caused the DNA to unwind, releasing fragments which migrate from the nucleus when they are subjected to an electric field. "
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ABSTRACT: An enormous quantity of pharmacologically active principles are currently being introduced into the environment, with consequent escalation of environmental problems, but only a small number of studies are focusing on an assessment of their genotoxic effects. The aim of this article is to assess the genotoxic effects of erythromycin, lincomycin, and of a combination of these two antibiotics on the genome of the zebrafish. The genotoxicity of the two antibiotics was assessed by applying the micronucleus test to erythrocytes and performing a Comet assay on erythrocytes and hepatocytes. The fish were exposed to antibiotics at different concentrations and times of exposure, under standard laboratory conditions. Depending on the different experimental conditions, erythromycin and lincomycin induced a significant increase in DNA migration (tail moment) and a significant increase in micronuleus frequency. We also conducted an analysis on the activation of repair mechanisms when the genotoxic agent was removed. Only a few of the cells displayed a decrease in damage under these test conditions.© 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 2012.
Environmental Toxicology 10/2012; 27(10):598-604. DOI:10.1002/tox.20685 · 3.20 Impact Factor
Available from: Axel Hochkirch
- "Due to its viviparous behaviour, reproductive impairments can easily be linked to the mother fish and hence also to the environment. This has extensively been used in ecotoxicological and environmental studies, where characters such as reproductive success, endocrine disruption and biomarker have been used to monitor effects of pollution and to link individual effects to a pollution source (Vetemaa et al., 1997; Frenzilli et al., 2004; Gercken et al., 2006; Napierska & Podolska, 2006). "
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ABSTRACT: In this study, the genetic population structure of the eelpout Zoarces viviparus was investigated by using microsatellites. Samples were collected at 10 sites in the Baltic Sea, covering a distance of c. 90 km. Ten newly developed microsatellite loci were used to infer the population structure. No global spatial genetic differentiation was found (global F(ST) = 0·0001; D(est) = -0·0003), indicating strong gene flow at this scale, nor any clear pattern of isolation by distance. The results suggest that gene flow among the studied populations of Z. viviparus is stronger than usually thought, which might be caused by environmental homogeneity. This is important for planning and evaluating monitoring activities in this species and for the interpretation of ecotoxicological studies. Strong migration might lead to wrong conclusions concerning the pollution in a given area. Therefore, reference stations should be placed at a larger distance than presently practiced.
Journal of Fish Biology 05/2012; 80(6):2302-16. DOI:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03286.x · 1.66 Impact Factor
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