Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Periventricular Leukomalacia in Preterm Infants
University of Milan, Milano, Lombardy, Italy Obstetrics and Gynecology
(Impact Factor: 5.18).
09/2004; 104(2):225-31. DOI: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000130838.02410.b7
To evaluate whether intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia are characterized by different risk factors.
In a cohort of 653 consecutive singleton neonates born after preterm membrane rupture, spontaneous preterm labor, or indicated preterm delivery at 24 to 33 weeks of gestation from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2002, we evaluated the obstetric and histopathologic placental variables in reference to the development of intraventricular hemorrhage (n = 44), periventricular leukomalacia (n = 19), or no ultrasonographic cerebral lesion (n = 589). Excluded were stillbirths and congenital anomalies. Statistical analysis included Fisher exact test, Student t test, and stepwise logistic regression analysis with a 2-tailed P <.05 considered significant.
Multivariate analysis showed that occurrence of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia were associated only with spontaneous prematurity (odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.4) and gestational age at delivery in weeks (odds ratio = 0.8; 95% confidence interval 0.7-0.9). Neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage did not differ from those with periventricular leukomalacia in any obstetric or neonatal variable, but there was a higher risk of neurodevelopmental delay associated with periventricular leukomalacia.
Among premature infants born at less than 34.0 weeks of gestation, intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia share common clinical characteristics, with spontaneous preterm delivery and gestational age at delivery as the only independent antenatal predictors.
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ABSTRACT: Compared with those born at term, preterm newborns are at an increased risk of short term disorders of the lung (bronchopulmonary dysplasia; BPD) and the brain (white matter damage; WMD), and of long term developmental and pulmonary dysfunctions. Although all of these adverse outcomes are associated with low gestational age, brain, but not lung, damage appears to be associated with the prematurity subgroup [spontaneous preterm labour and/or preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) vs pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)]. Part of the association between brain damage and prematurity subgroup might be due to a differential exposure of members of these subgroups to perinatal infection/inflammation. There is a lack of studies evaluating the association of antenatal and perinatal risk factors with late childhood pulmonary dysfunction among those born during the second trimester. In this paper we discuss the complexities that paediatricians, perinatologists and perinatal epidemiologists face as they try to understand the contributions of factors associated with preterm birth to neonatal and childhood disorders.
BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 04/2005; 112 Suppl 1(s1):4-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2005.00576.x · 3.45 Impact Factor
Available from: Ruth C Fretts
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ABSTRACT: This is a systematic review of the literature on the causes of stillbirth and clinical opinion regarding strategies for its prevention.
We reviewed the causes of stillbirth by performing a Medline search limited to articles in English published in core clinical journals from January 1, 1995, to January 1, 2005. Articles before this date were included if they added historical information relevant to the topic. A total of 1445 articles obtained, 113 were the basis of this review and chosen based on the criterion that stillbirth or fetal death was central to the article.
Fifteen risk factors for stillbirths were identified and the prevalence of these conditions and associated risks are presented The most prevalent risk factors for stillbirth are prepregnancy obesity, socioeconomic factors, and advanced maternal age. Biologic markers associated with increased stillbirth risk are also reviewed, and strategies for its prevention identified.
Identification of risk factors for stillbirth assists the clinician in performing a risk assessment for each patient. Unexplained stillbirths and stillbirths related to growth restriction are the 2 categories of death that contribute the most to late fetal losses. Late pregnancy is associated with an increasing risk of stillbirth, and clinicians should have a low threshold to evaluate fetal growth. The value of antepartum testing is related to the underlying risk of stillbirth and, although the strategy of antepartum testing in patients with increased risk will decrease the risk of late fetal loss, it is of necessity associated with higher intervention rates.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 01/2006; 193(6):1923-35. DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2005.03.074 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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