Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Periventricular Leukomalacia in Preterm Infants
ABSTRACT To evaluate whether intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia are characterized by different risk factors.
In a cohort of 653 consecutive singleton neonates born after preterm membrane rupture, spontaneous preterm labor, or indicated preterm delivery at 24 to 33 weeks of gestation from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2002, we evaluated the obstetric and histopathologic placental variables in reference to the development of intraventricular hemorrhage (n = 44), periventricular leukomalacia (n = 19), or no ultrasonographic cerebral lesion (n = 589). Excluded were stillbirths and congenital anomalies. Statistical analysis included Fisher exact test, Student t test, and stepwise logistic regression analysis with a 2-tailed P <.05 considered significant.
Multivariate analysis showed that occurrence of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia were associated only with spontaneous prematurity (odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.4) and gestational age at delivery in weeks (odds ratio = 0.8; 95% confidence interval 0.7-0.9). Neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage did not differ from those with periventricular leukomalacia in any obstetric or neonatal variable, but there was a higher risk of neurodevelopmental delay associated with periventricular leukomalacia.
Among premature infants born at less than 34.0 weeks of gestation, intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia share common clinical characteristics, with spontaneous preterm delivery and gestational age at delivery as the only independent antenatal predictors.
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