Endogenous cystinyl aminopeptidase in Chinese hamster ovary cells: characterization by [125I]Ang IV binding and catalytic activity.
ABSTRACT The angiotensin II C-terminal hexapeptide fragment angiotensin IV (Ang IV) exerts central and cardiovascular effects. Cystinyl aminopeptidase (EC 220.127.116.11), a membrane-associated zinc-dependent metallopeptidase of the M1 family, has recently been found to display high affinity for Ang IV and it was proposed to represent the AT4 receptor. We present evidence for the presence of endogenous cystinyl aminopeptidase in membranes from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells by binding studies with [125I]Ang IV and by measuring the cleavage of L-leucine-p-nitroanilide. The equilibrium dissociation constant of [125I]Ang IV in saturation binding studies (KD= 0.90 nM) was similar to the value (KD= 0.70 nM) calculated from the association and dissociation rates. Binding was displaced with high potency by the "AT4 receptor" ligands (Ang IV > divalinal1-Ang IV approximately LVV-hemorphin-7 approximately LVV-hemorphin-6 > Ang (3-7) > Ang III > Ang (4-8)) but not by AT1/AT2 receptor antagonists. Enzymatic activity in CHO-K1 cell membranes was competitively inhibited upto 94% by Ang IV and other "AT4 receptor" ligands (Ang IV > Ang III approximately divalinal1-Ang IV approximately Ang (3-7) approximately LVV-hemorphin-7 > Ang (4-8) approximately LVV-hemorphin-6). High affinity binding of [125I]Ang IV required the presence of metal chelators and the ligands such as Ang IV and LVV-hemorphin-7 displayed higher potency in the binding studies as in the enzyme assay. This difference in potency varied from one peptide to another. These pharmacological properties match those previously reported for the recombinantly-expressed human cystinyl aminopeptidase in embryonal kidney cells.
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ABSTRACT: The hexapeptide angiotensin IV (Ang IV) induces diverse biological effects such as memory enhancement and protection against ischemic stroke. Studies on the mechanism of Ang IV however are hampered by its instability and its lack of selectivity. The high-affinity binding site for Ang IV is the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP, EC 18.104.22.168), but Ang IV also acts as a weak agonist for the Ang II-receptor (AT(1)), implying the need for stable and highly selective Ang IV-analogues. Here we present the screening of novel Ang IV-analogues, selected on basis of high affinity for IRAP, high selectivity (compared to aminopeptidase N and the AT(1) receptor) and resistance against proteases. The selected compound IVDE77 possesses a number of advantages compared to Ang IV: (i) it has a 40 times higher affinity for IRAP (K(i) 1.71nM), (ii) it does not activate the AT(1) receptor, (iii) it is easily radiolabeled with tritium and (iv) it is resistant to proteolysis, even in human plasma. In addition, pre-treatment of intact CHO-K1 cells with IVDE77 led to a virtually complete inhibition of subsequent intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]IVDE77-IRAP complexes. IVDE77 thus represents the first Ang IV-analogue able to abolish IRAP-availability completely at the cell surface in vitro. In summary, IVDE77 is a useful tool for the detection of IRAP under physiological conditions, and may contribute to elucidating the mechanism of Ang IV to ascertain which functions are IRAP-dependent.European journal of pharmacology 01/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxytocin is a neuromodulator with antidepressant-like effects. In vitro, oxytocin is rapidly cleaved by insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). Oxytocin metabolites are known to exert strong central activities that are different from the effects of the parent molecule. Our goal is to investigate in vivo whether IRAP deletion modifies the antidepressant-like effects of oxytocin. Male and female C57Bl/6 mice, IRAP wild-type (IRAP+/+) and knock-out (IRAP-/-) mice were injected subcutaneously with saline, oxytocin or oxytocin combined with angiotensin IV. One hour after injection, immobility was timed during a 5 min forced swim that was preceded by an open field to study locomotor behaviour. Oxytocin induced antidepressant-like effects in male (0.25 mg/kg oxytocin) and female (0.15 mg/kg oxytocin) C57Bl/6 mice subjected to the forced swim test. Oxytocin did not influence locomotor behaviour in mice, as shown with the open field. These findings were reproduced in transgenic male (aged 3-6 months) and female (aged 12-18 months) IRAP+/+ mice. However, the major findings of our study were that the antidepressant-like effect was reversed in angiotensin IV treated IRAP+/+ mice and was completely absent in age- and gender-matched IRAP-/- mice. The lack of an antidepressant-like effect of oxytocin in young male and middle-aged female IRAP-/- mice attributes an important role to IRAP in mediating this effect.The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 11/2012; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The inhibition of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP, EC 22.214.171.124) by angiotenesin IV is known to improve memory and learning in rats. Screening 10 500 low-molecular-weight compounds in an enzyme inhibition assay with IRAP from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells provided an arylsulfonamide (N-(3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)-4-bromo-5-chlorothiophene-2-sulfonamide), comprising a tetrazole in the meta position of the aromatic ring, as a hit. Analogues of this hit were synthesized, and their inhibitory capacities were determined. A small structure–activity relationship study revealed that the sulfonamide function and the tetrazole ring are crucial for IRAP inhibition. The inhibitors exhibited a moderate inhibitory potency with an IC50=1.1±0.5 μm for the best inhibitor in the series. Further optimization of this new class of IRAP inhibitors is required to make them attractive as research tools and as potential cognitive enhancers.ChemistryOpen. 11/2014; 9999.