Investigation of the novel mixed-mode stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography. I. Preparation and characterization of sulfonated naphthalimido-modified silyl silica gel.
ABSTRACT A novel packing material, 3-(4-sulfo-1,8-naphthalimido)propyl-modified silyl silica gel (SNAIP), was prepared for the use as a stationary phase of capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The sulfonic acid groups on SNAIP stationary phase contributed to the generation of electroosmotic flow (EOF) at low pH and served as a strong cation-exchanger. In CEC with SNAIP, a mixed-mode separation was predicted, comprising hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions as well as electrophoretic migration process. In order to understand the retention mechanism on SNAIP, effects of buffer pH, concentration, and mobile phase composition on EOF mobility and the retention factors of barbiturates and benzodiazepines were systematically investigated. Moreover, the retention behavior of barbiturates on SNAIP was investigated and compared with those on octadecyl silica (ODS), phenyl-bonded silica, and 3-(1,8-naphthalimido)propyl-modified silyl silica gel to confirm the presence of pi-pi interaction on its retention mechanism. It was observed that a column efficiency was more than 85,000 N/m for retained compounds and the relative standard deviations for the retention times of EOF marker, thiourea, and five barbiturates were below 2.5% (n = 4). Under an applied voltage of 20 kV and a mobile phase consisted of 5 mM phosphate (pH 3.8) and 40% methanol, the baseline separation of five barbiturates was achieved within 3 min.