Distribution and clinical significance of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in ovarian cancer
ABSTRACT Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been implicated in cancer cell growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. This study was designed to compare their expression in normal ovary and ovarian tumors and then to examine their prognostic significance in ovarian cancer.
The expression of syndecan-1, -2, -3, and -4, glypican-1, and perlecan was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 147 biopsies that included normal ovary and benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian tumors. Clinical data, including tumor stage, performance status, treatment, and survival, were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate prognostic significance.
The expression patterns of syndecan-1 and perlecan were altered in ovarian tumors compared with normal ovary. Syndecan-1 was not detected in normal ovary but was present in the epithelial and stromal cells of benign and borderline tumors and in ovarian adenocarcinomas. Perlecan expression was decreased in basement membranes that were disrupted by cancer cells but maintained in the basement membranes of blood vessels. Syndecan-2, -3, and -4, and glypican-1 were expressed in normal ovary and benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Stromal expression of syndecan-1 and glypican-1 were poor prognostic factors for survival in univariate analysis.
We report for the first time distinct patterns of expression of cell surface and extracellular matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycans in normal ovary compared with ovarian tumors. These data reinforce the role of the tumor stroma in ovarian adenocarcinoma and suggest that stromal induction of syndecan-1 contributes to the pathogenesis of this malignancy.
SourceAvailable from: George N Tzanakakis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The consecutive stages of cancer growth and dissemination are obligatorily perpetrated through specific interactions of the tumor cells with their microenvironment. Importantly, cell-associated and tumor microenvironment glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)/proteoglycan (PG) content and distribution are markedly altered during tumor pathogenesis and progression. GAGs and PGs perform multiple functions in specific stages of the metastatic cascade due to their defined structure and ability to interact with both ligands and receptors regulating cancer pathogenesis. Thus, GAGs/PGs may modulate downstream signaling of key cellular mediators including insulin growth factor receptor (IGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), estrogen receptors (ERs), or Wnt members. In the present review we will focus on breast cancer motility in correlation with their GAG/PG content and critically discuss mechanisms involved. Furthermore, new approaches involving GAGs/PGs as potential prognostic/diagnostic markers or as therapeutic agents for cancer-related pathologies are being proposed.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:124321. DOI:10.1155/2014/124321 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human embryo invasion and implantation into the inner wall of the maternal uterus, the endometrium, is the pivotal process for a successful pregnancy. Whereas disruption of the endometrial epithelial layer was already correlated with the programmed cell death, the role of apoptosis of the subjacent endometrial stromal cells during implantation is indistinct. The aim was to clarify whether apoptosis plays a role in the stromal invasion and to characterize if the apoptotic susceptibility of endometrial stromal cells to embryonic stimuli is influenced by decidualization and Syndecan-1. Therefore, the immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line St-T1 was used to first generate a new cell line with a stable Syndecan-1 knock down (KdS1), and second to further decidualize the cells with progesterone. As a replacement for the ethically inapplicable embryo all cells were treated with the embryonic factors and secretion products interleukin-1β, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β1 and anti-Fas antibody to mimic the embryo contact. Detection of apoptosis was verified via Caspase ELISAs, PARP cleavage and Annexin V staining. Apoptosis-related proteins were investigated via antibody arrays and underlying signaling pathways were analyzed by Western blot. Non-decidualized endometrial stromal cells showed a resistance towards apoptosis which was rescinded by decidualization and Syndecan-1 knock down independent of decidualization. This was correlated with an altered expression of several pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and connected to a higher activation of pro-survival Akt in non-differentiated St-T1 as an upstream mediator of apoptotis-related proteins. This study provides insight into the largely elusive process of implantation, proposing an important role for stromal cell apoptosis to successfully establish a pregnancy. The impact of Syndecan-1 in attenuating the apoptotic signal is particularly interesting in the light of an already described influence on pregnancy disorders and therefore might provide a useful clinical tool in the future to prevent pregnancy complications provoked by inadequate implantation.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(4):e0121103. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121103 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Syndecan-1 (SDC1/CD138) is one of the main cell surface proteoglycans and is involved in crucial biological processes. Only a few studies have analyzed the role of SDC1 in mesenchymal tumor pathogenesis. In particular, its involvement in adipose tissue tumors has never been investigated. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma, one of the most frequent types of malignant adipose tumors, has a high potential of recurrence and metastastic evolution. Classical chemotherapy is inefficient in metastatic dedifferentiated liposarcoma and novel biological markers are needed for improving its treatment. In this study, we have analyzed the expression of SDC1 in well-differentiated/dedifferentiated liposarcomas and showed that SDC1 is highly overexpressed in dedifferentiated liposarcoma compared to normal adipose tissue and lipomas. Silencing of SDC1 in liposarcoma cells impaired cell viability and proliferation. Using the human multipotent adipose-derived stem (hMADS) cell model of human adipogenesis, we showed that SDC1 promotes proliferation of undifferentiated adipocyte progenitors and inhibits their adipogenic differentiation. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that SDC1 might be involved in liposarcomagenesis. It might play a prominent role in the dedifferentiation process occurring when well-differentiated liposarcoma progress to dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Targeting SDC1 in these tumors might provide a novel therapeutic strategy.Carcinogenesis 10/2014; 36(1). DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgu222 · 5.27 Impact Factor