Activation of MMP-2 in response to vascular injury is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent expression of MT1-MMP.
ABSTRACT Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is required for smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. This study reports that inhibitors of PI3K also prevent SMC migration and block neointimal hyperplasia in an organ culture model of restenosis. Inhibition of neointimal formation by LY-294002 was concentration and time dependent, with 10 muM yielding the maximal effect. Continuous exposure for at least the first 4-7 days of culture was essential for significant inhibition. To assess the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process, we monitored MMP secretion by injured vessels in culture. Treatment with LY-294002 selectively reduced active MMP-2 in media samples according to zymography and Western blot analysis without concomitant changes in latent MMP-2. Parallel results with wortmannin indicate that MMP-2 activation is PI3K dependent. Previous research has shown a role for both furin and membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP (MMP-14) in the activation of MMP-2. The furin inhibitor decanoyl-Arg-Val-Lys-Arg-chloromethylketone did not prevent MMP-2 activation after balloon angioplasty. In contrast, balloon angioplasty induced a significant increase in the levels of MT1-MMP, which was suppressed by LY-294002. No change in MT1-MMP mRNA was observed with LY-294002, because equivalent amounts of this mRNA were present in both injured and noninjured vessels. These results implicate PI3K-dependent regulation of MT1-MMP protein synthesis and subsequent activation of latent MMP-2 as critical events in neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury.
- SourceAvailable from: Timothy Regnault[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study explored arterial remodelling in fetuses growth restricted by hypoxia. Chronically catheterized fetal sheep were made moderately or severely hypoxic by placental embolization for 15 days starting at gestational age 116-118 (term ∼147 days). Cross-sections of the aorta were analysed for collagen and elastin content using histological procedures, while immunofluorescence was applied to measure markers of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) type. In frozen aortae quantitative PCR was used to measure mRNA levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) precursor proteins as well as molecular regulators of developmental and pathological remodelling. Relative to Control (n =6), aortic wall thickness was increased by 23% in the Moderate group (n =5) and 33% (P <0.01) in the Severe group (n =5). Relative to Control, the Severe group exhibited a 5-fold increase in total collagen content (P <0.01) that paralleled increases in mRNA levels of procollagen I (P <0.05) and III and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β1) (P <0.05). The percentage area stained for α-actin was inversely related to fetal arterial oxygen saturation (P <0.05) and total α-actin content was 45% higher in the Moderate group and 65% (P <0.05) higher in the Severe group, compared to Control. A 12% and 39% (P <0.05) reduction in relative elastic fibre content was observed in Moderate and Severe fetuses, respectively. mRNA levels of the elastolytic enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were inversely correlated with fetal arterial oxygen saturation (P <0.05) (Fig. 7) and mRNA levels of its activator, membrane-type MMP (MTI-MMP), were elevated in the Severe group (P <0.05). Marked neointima formation was apparent in Severe fetuses (P <0.05) concomitant with an increase in E-selectin mRNA expression (P <0.05). Thus, aberrant aortic formation in utero mediated by molecular regulators of arterial growth occurs in response to chronic hypoxaemia.The Journal of Physiology 05/2011; 589(Pt 13):3319-32. · 4.38 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Both cysteine protease cathepsins and matrix metalloproteinases are implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in humans and animals. Blood and aortic tissues from humans or animals with AAAs contain much higher levels of these proteases, and often lower levels of their endogenous inhibitors, than do blood and aortic tissues from healthy subjects. Protease- and protease inhibitor-deficient mice and synthetic protease inhibitors have affirmed that cysteinyl cathepsins and matrix metalloproteinases both participate directly in AAA development in several experimental model systems. Here, we summarize our current understanding of how proteases contribute to the pathogenesis of AAA, and discuss whether proteases or their inhibitors may serve as diagnostic biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets for this common human arterial disease.Future Cardiology 01/2013; 9(1):89-103.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to take osteopontin (OPN) as molecular target to study its effects on injured intima model of carotid artery in rat using perivascular transfer of OPN-small interference RNA (siRNA). OPN mRNA in cultured VSMCs was quantified by real-time RT-PCR, and OPN-siRNA-002 was determined as the most sensitive sequence and used as transfected siRNA in the subsequent animal experiments. We established rat carotid arterial intima-injured model with balloon-injured method, and then perivascularly transfected OPN-siRNA-002 to study the role of OPN-siRNA in regulating several related genes including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14), as well as its role in neointimal formation. OPN mRNA and protein decreased about 50 % with corresponding decrease in intima thickness after transfecting with specific OPN-siRNA-002 compared with Pluronic control group and OPN-SCR-siRNA group on each time point (n = 6, p < 0.001), and this inhibiting effects persisted up to 14 days after balloon injury. PCNA, TGF-β1, MMP-2, and MMP-14 mRNA and protein correlated directly with the respective levels of OPN, suggesting its functions via regulating these downstream factors (n = 6, p < 0.001). OPN may be a potential target gene in reducing the risk for arterial restenosis after vascular intervention.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 03/2013; · 2.33 Impact Factor