Activation of MMP-2 in response to vascular injury is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent expression of MT1-MMP
ABSTRACT Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is required for smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. This study reports that inhibitors of PI3K also prevent SMC migration and block neointimal hyperplasia in an organ culture model of restenosis. Inhibition of neointimal formation by LY-294002 was concentration and time dependent, with 10 muM yielding the maximal effect. Continuous exposure for at least the first 4-7 days of culture was essential for significant inhibition. To assess the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process, we monitored MMP secretion by injured vessels in culture. Treatment with LY-294002 selectively reduced active MMP-2 in media samples according to zymography and Western blot analysis without concomitant changes in latent MMP-2. Parallel results with wortmannin indicate that MMP-2 activation is PI3K dependent. Previous research has shown a role for both furin and membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP (MMP-14) in the activation of MMP-2. The furin inhibitor decanoyl-Arg-Val-Lys-Arg-chloromethylketone did not prevent MMP-2 activation after balloon angioplasty. In contrast, balloon angioplasty induced a significant increase in the levels of MT1-MMP, which was suppressed by LY-294002. No change in MT1-MMP mRNA was observed with LY-294002, because equivalent amounts of this mRNA were present in both injured and noninjured vessels. These results implicate PI3K-dependent regulation of MT1-MMP protein synthesis and subsequent activation of latent MMP-2 as critical events in neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury.
SourceAvailable from: Timothy Regnault[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study determined the effect of chronic intrauterine hypoxia on collagen deposition in the fetal sheep heart. Moderate or severe hypoxia was induced by placental embolization in chronically catheterized fetal sheep for 15 days starting at gestational day 116 ± 2 (term ∼147 days). The fetal right and left ventricle were evaluated for collagen content using a Sirius red dye and for changes in signaling components of pathways involved in collagen synthesis and remodeling using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. In severely hypoxic fetuses (n = 6), there was a two-fold increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage staining for collagen in the right ventricle, compared with control (n = 6), whereas collagen content was not altered in the moderate group (n = 4). Procollagen I and III mRNA levels were increased in the right ventricle, two-fold (P < 0.05) and three-fold (P < 0.05), respectively, in the severe group relative to control. These changes were paralleled by a two-fold increase (P < 0.05) in mRNA levels of the pro-fibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β1), in the right ventricle. In the right ventricle, the mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and its activator, membrane-type MMP (MTI-MMP) were increased five-fold (P = 0.06) and three-fold (P < 0.05), respectively, relative to control. Protein levels of TGF-β were increased in the left ventricle (P < 0.05). Thus, up-regulated collagen synthesis leading to increased collagen content occurs in the chronically hypoxic fetal heart and may contribute to the right ventricular diastolic and systolic dysfunction reported in human intrauterine growth restriction fetuses.12/2013; 4(06). DOI:10.1017/S2040174413000299
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To find a potential underlying cause for Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) discordance in monozygotic twins. Prospective comparative study. University hospital. Our study genetically analyzed 5 MRKHS-discordant monozygotic twin pairs with the unique opportunity to include saliva and rudimentary uterine tissue. Blood, saliva, or rudimentary uterine tissue from five MRKHS-discordant twins was analyzed and compared between twin pairs as well as within the same individual where applicable. We used copy number variations (CNVs) to identify differences. CNVs in blood, rudimentary uterine tissue, and saliva, network analysis, and review of the literature. One duplication found in the affected twin included two genes, matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10 (LRP10), which have known functions in the embryonic development of the uterus and endometrium. The duplicated region was detected in rudimentary uterine tissue from the same individual but not in saliva, making a tissue-specific mosaicism a possible explanation for twin discordance. Additional network analysis revealed important connections to differentially expressed genes from previous studies. These genes encode several molecules involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and neoangiogenesis. MMP-14, LRP-10, ECM, and neoangiogenesis genes are identified as candidate genes in a tissue-specific mosaicism. The detected clusters provide evidence of deficient vascularization during uterine development and/or disturbed reorganization of ECM components, potentially during müllerian duct elongation signaled by the embryologically relevant phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway. Therefore, we consider these genes to be new candidates in the manifestation of MRKHS. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Fertility and Sterility 12/2014; 103(2). DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.10.053 · 4.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alcohol abuse increases the incidence of cerebral accidents, which correlates with cerebrovascular structural changes. The present study was designed to observe the cerebrovascular remodeling of drinking rats with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Short-term alcohol administration induced apparent amplification of perivascular spaces around small vessels in brain tissue, while long-term administration caused pathological changes of basilar arteries (BAs), including endothelial exfoliation, inner elastic lamina (IEL) fragmentation and thickening of tunica media and adventitia. In addition, the relationship between cerebrovascular remodeling and MMP-2 and MMP-9 synthesized by endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells was explored by immunohistochemistry. The two protein expression in cerebral vessels changed dynamically, peaking at 1-2 weeks after treatment, and decreasing as treatment continued. These results suggest that MMP-2 and MMP-9 may play a significant role in blood-brain barrier disruption after alcohol abuse. But the chronic changes of cerebral arteries resulted from drinking are not coincident with time course of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in situ.