Detergent proteases.

Henkel, Enzyme Technology, Henkelstrasse 67 40191, Duesseldorf, Germany.
Current Opinion in Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 7.86). 09/2004; 15(4):330-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.copbio.2004.06.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Over the past 20 years, the development of subtilisins as typical detergent proteases has employed all the tools of enzyme technology, resulting in a constant flow of new and improved enzymes. The number of molecules identified and characterized, however, is in clear opposition to the number of molecules that are entering the market. Will the next-generation detergent proteases be based on new backbones different from subtilisins, or will the use of all available technologies (rational design, directed evolution and exploitation of natural diversity) yield improved subtilisins, ending the current era dominated by high alkaline subtilisins? These questions will have to be answered not only by the performance of the molecules themselves, but also by their yield in fermentation and their compatibility with existing production technologies.

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    ABSTRACT: Since volatile and rising cost factors such as energy, raw materials and market competitiveness have a significant impact on the economic efficiency of biotechnological bulk productions, industrial processes need to be steadily improved and optimized. Thereby the current production hosts can undergo various limitations. To overcome those limitations and in addition increase the diversity of available production hosts for future applications, we suggest a Production Strain Blueprinting (PSB) strategy to develop new production systems in a reduced time lapse in contrast to a development from scratch.To demonstrate this approach, Bacillus pumilus has been developed as an alternative expression platform for the production of alkaline enzymes in reference to the established industrial production host Bacillus licheniformis. To develop the selected B. pumilus as an alternative production host the suggested PSB strategy was applied proceeding in the following steps (dedicated product titers are scaled to the protease titer of Henkel's industrial production strain B. licheniformis at lab scale): Introduction of a protease production plasmid, adaptation of a protease production process (44%), process optimization (92%) and expression optimization (114%). To further evaluate the production capability of the developed B. pumilus platform, the target protease was substituted by an alpha-amylase. The expression performance was tested under the previously optimized protease process conditions and under subsequently adapted process conditions resulting in a maximum product titer of 65% in reference to B. licheniformis protease titer. In this contribution the applied PSB strategy performed very well for the development of B. pumilus as an alternative production strain. Thereby the engineered B. pumilus expression platform even exceeded the protease titer of the industrial production host B. licheniformis by 14%. This result exhibits a remarkable potential of B. pumilus to be the basis for a next generation production host, since the strain has still a large potential for further genetic engineering. The final amylase titer of 65% in reference to B. licheniformis protease titer suggests that the developed B. pumilus expression platform is also suitable for an efficient production of non-proteolytic enzymes reaching a final titer of several grams per liter without complex process modifications.
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the physical stability and optimization of nutrient components for an extracellular protease produced by Bacillus strains isolated from fruits and vegetable waste, Lucknow, India. The isolated proteases could hydrolyze various native proteinaceous substrates such as bovine serum albumin, casein, skim milk, but not the gelatin. The strain JX416854 and isolate 10 yielded maximum protease (831; 703 U/ml) under optimized conditions: Nutrient, Casein broth; pH 7.0; shaking condition 37°C for 36 h. Crude protease exhibited activity over a wide range of pH (6.0-10.0) and found to be stable at (10-70°C), pH stable at 7- 9.0. The significant protease activity was observed with divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ and EDTA. Further, significant blood destaining properties and stabilities with detergents were also observed. Thus, the significant potency and stability of these enzymes indicated their industrial importance and could be an alternative protease for various industrial applications.
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