Mutation of the mouse Rad17 gene leads to embryonic lethality and reveals a role in DNA damage-dependent recombination.
ABSTRACT Genetic defects in DNA repair mechanisms and cell cycle checkpoint (CCC) genes result in increased genomic instability and cancer predisposition. Discovery of mammalian homologs of yeast CCC genes suggests conservation of checkpoint mechanisms between yeast and mammals. However, the role of many CCC genes in higher eukaryotes remains elusive. Here, we report that targeted deletion of an N-terminal part of mRad17, the mouse homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad17 checkpoint clamp-loader component, resulted in embryonic lethality during early/mid-gestation. In contrast to mouse embryos, embryonic stem (ES) cells, isolated from mRad17(5'Delta/5'Delta) embryos, produced truncated mRad17 and were viable. These cells displayed hypersensitivity to various DNA-damaging agents. Surprisingly, mRad17(5'Delta/5'Delta) ES cells were able to arrest cell cycle progression upon induction of DNA damage. However, they displayed impaired homologous recombination as evidenced by a strongly reduced gene targeting efficiency. In addition to a possible role in DNA damage-induced CCC, based on sequence homology, our results indicate that mRad17 has a function in DNA damage-dependent recombination that may be responsible for the sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Alex Maas, Jul 01, 2015
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ABSTRACT: RAD9 participates in promoting resistance to DNA damage, cell cycle checkpoint control, DNA repair, apoptosis, embryogenesis, and regulation of transcription. A paralogue of RAD9 (named RAD9B) has been identified. To define the function of mouse Rad9b (Mrad9b), embryonic stem (ES) cells with a targeted gene deletion were constructed and used to generate Mrad9b mutant mice. Mrad9b(-/-) embryos are resorbed after E7.5 while some of the heterozygotes die between E12.5 and a few days after birth. Mrad9b is expressed in embryonic brain and Mrad9b(+/-) embryos exhibit abnormal neural tube closure. Mrad9b(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts are not viable. Mrad9b(-/-) ES cells are more sensitive to gamma rays and mitomycin C than Mrad9b(+/+) controls, but show normal gamma-ray-induced G2/M checkpoint control. There is no evidence of spontaneous genomic instability in Mrad9b(-/-) cells. Our findings thus indicate that Mrad9b is essential for embryonic development and mediates resistance to certain DNA damaging agents.Developmental Dynamics 11/2010; 239(11):2837-50. DOI:10.1002/dvdy.22415 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown a critical function for the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in regulating the signalling network for DNA damage responses and DNA repair. To search for new UPS targets in the DNA damage signalling pathway, we have carried out a non-biased assay to identify fast-turnover proteins induced by various types of genotoxic stress. This endeavour led to the identification of Rad17 as a protein exhibiting a distinctive pattern of upregulation followed by subsequent degradation after exposure to UV radiation in human primary cells. Our characterization showed that UV-induced Rad17 oscillation is mediated by Cdh1/APC, a ubiquitin-protein ligase. Studies using a degradation-resistant Rad17 mutant demonstrated that Rad17 stabilization prevents the termination of checkpoint signalling, which in turn attenuates the cellular re-entry into cell-cycle progression. The findings provide an insight into how the proteolysis of Rad17 by Cdh1/APC regulates the termination of checkpoint signalling and the recovery from genotoxic stress.The EMBO Journal 05/2010; 29(10):1726-37. DOI:10.1038/emboj.2010.55 · 10.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) capable of stably suppressing gene function by RNA interference (RNAi) can mimic tumor-suppressor-gene loss in mice. By selecting for shRNAs capable of accelerating lymphomagenesis in a well-characterized mouse lymphoma model, we identified over ten candidate tumor suppressors, including Sfrp1, Numb, Mek1, and Angiopoietin 2. Several components of the DNA damage response machinery were also identified, including Rad17, which acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that responds to oncogenic stress and whose loss is associated with poor prognosis in human patients. Our results emphasize the utility of in vivo RNAi screens, identify and validate a diverse set of tumor suppressors, and have therapeutic implications.Cancer cell 10/2009; 16(4):324-35. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2009.08.015 · 23.89 Impact Factor