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Arvidson, R. E. et al. Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev Crater. Science 305, 821-824

Cornell University, Итак, New York, United States
Science (Impact Factor: 31.48). 09/2004; 305(5685):821-4. DOI: 10.1126/science.1099922
Source: DLR

ABSTRACT The precise location and relative elevation of Spirit during its traverses from the Columbia Memorial station to Bonneville crater were determined with bundle-adjusted retrievals from rover wheel turns, suspension and tilt angles, and overlapping images. Physical properties experiments show a decrease of 0.2% per Mars solar day in solar cell output resulting from deposition of airborne dust, cohesive soil-like deposits in plains and hollows, bright and dark rock coatings, and relatively weak volcanic rocks of basaltic composition. Volcanic, impact, aeolian, and water-related processes produced the encountered landforms and materials.

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    • "With the continuous development of the Chang'E lunar exploration program (Chang'E-1, Chang'E-2, and Chang'E-3), Mars exploration has become one of the key missions of China's deep space exploration program. Martian soil, covering the entire surface of Mars, is an unconsolidated material which has a direct effect on the locomotion performance of the Mars Lander/Rover and the performance of other aerospace equipment (Bishop and Dummel 1996; Arvidson et al. 2004a, b). Reaching Mars and landing safely on it have proven to be challenging tasks, despite the success of recent missions (e.g., Curiosity). "
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    ABSTRACT: It is important to develop Martian soil simulants that can be used in Mars exploration programs and Mars research. A new Martian soil simulant, called Jining Martian Soil Simulant (JMSS-1), was developed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Research Center at the Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The raw materials of JMSS-1 are Jining basalt and Fe oxides (magnetite and hematite). JMSS-1 was produced by mechanically crushing Jining basalt with the addition of small amounts of magnetite and hematite. The properties of this simulant, including chemical composition, mineralogy, particle size, mechanical properties, reflectance spectra, dielectric properties, volatile content, and hygroscopicity, have been analyzed. On the basis of these test results, it was demonstrated that JMSS-1 is an ideal Martian soil simulant in terms of chemical composition, mineralogy, and physical properties. JMSS-1 would be an appropriate choice as a Martian soil simulant in scientific and engineering experiments in China's Mars exploration in the future.
    12/2015; 67(1). DOI:10.1186/s40623-015-0248-5
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    • "With the continuous development of the Chang'E lunar exploration program (Chang'E-1, Chang'E-2, and Chang'E-3), Mars exploration has become one of the key missions of China's deep space exploration program. Martian soil, covering the entire surface of Mars, is an unconsolidated material which has a direct effect on the locomotion performance of the Mars Lander/Rover and the performance of other aerospace equipment (Bishop and Dummel 1996; Arvidson et al. 2004a, b). Reaching Mars and landing safely on it have proven to be challenging tasks, despite the success of recent missions (e.g., Curiosity). "
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    • "They are made up of very well sorted particles with characteristics similar to those of the fine to medium sand ubiquitously observed elsewhere on the traverse. A substantial fraction of the population is also comprised of silt-size material below resolution [Arvidson et al., 2004]. From Sol 052 to Bonneville, the medium sand fraction does not vary significantly in mean size (1.60–1.64 "
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    ABSTRACT: Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8-billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples, plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 05/2014; in press(5). DOI:10.1002/2013JE004535 · 3.44 Impact Factor
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