[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oral Diseases (2012) doi: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2012.01930.x Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is one of the most common autoimmune rheumatic diseases, clinically characterized by xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. We investigated the following controversial topics: (i) Do we have reliable ways of assessing saliva production? (ii) How important are the quantity and quality of saliva? (iii) Are only anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La relevant for the diagnosis of SjS? (iv) Are the American-European Consensus criteria (AECC) the best way to diagnose SjS? Results from literature searches suggested the following: (i) Despite the fact that numerous tests are available to assess salivation rates, direct comparisons among them are scarce with little evidence to suggest one best test. (ii) Recent developments highlight the importance of investigating the composition of saliva. However, more research is needed to standardize the methods of analysis and collection and refine the quality of the accumulating data. (iii) In addition to anti-Ro/La autoantibodies, anti α-fodrin IgA and anti-MR3 autoantibodies seem to be promising diagnostic markers of SjS, but more studies are warranted to test their sensitivity and specificity. (iv) AECC are classification, not diagnostic criteria. Moreover, recent innovations have not been incorporated into these criteria. Consequently, treatment directed to patients diagnosed using the AECC might exclude a significant proportion of patients with SjS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sjögren's syndrome (SS), a systemic autoimmune disease, is characterized by inflammation of exocrine tissues accompanied by a significant loss of their secretory function. Clinical symptoms develop late and there are no diagnostic tests enabling early diagnosis of SS. Thus, particularly to study these covert stages, researchers turn to studying animal models where mice provide great freedom for genetic manipulation and testing the effect of experimental intervention. The present review summarizes current literature pertaining to both spontaneous and extrinsic-factor induced SS-like diseases in mouse models, discussing advantages and disadvantages related to the use of murine models in SS research.
Arthritis research & therapy 06/2011; 13(3):217. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in the human population is a key determinant of influenza disease severity. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the antiviral gene IFITM3 was linked to outcomes during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. To identify variant host genes associated with increased virus replication and severe disease, we performed a quantitative trait locus analysis on pro-inflammatory cytokine production 48 hours after intranasal infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus.
Pro-inflammatory cytokines CCL2, TNFalpha and IFN-alpha, were measured by ELISA in lung homogenates of DBA/2J (D2), C57BL/6J (B6) and 44 different BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains. Virus titer was also assessed in a subset of these animals. CCL2 (8-fold), TNFalpha (24-fold) and IFN-alpha (8-fold) concentrations varied significantly among the different BXD RI strains. Importantly, cytokine concentration correlated very well (r =0.86-0.96, P <0.0001) with virus titer suggesting that early cytokine production is due to increased virus infection and replication. Linkage analysis of cytokine concentration revealed a significant locus on chromosome 6 associated with differences in TNFalpha, IFN-alpha and CCL2 cytokine concentration (LRS =26). This locus accounted for nearly 20% of the observed phenotypic variation in the BXD population studied. Sequence and RNA expression analysis identified several candidate host genes containing missense mutations or deletions; Samd9l, Ica1, and Slc25a13. To study the role of Slc25a13, we obtained Slc25a13 knockout line, but upon challenge with H5N1 influenza virus observed no effect on CCL2 production, or morbidity and mortality.
A novel genetic locus on chromosome 6 modulates early pro-inflammatory cytokine production and virus replication after highly pathogenic influenza virus infection. Candidate genes, Samd9l and Ica1, may be important for the control of influenza virus infection and pathogenesis.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.