Molecular analysis ofWFDC1/ps20 gene in prostate cancer

Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
The Prostate (Impact Factor: 3.57). 10/2004; 61(2):192-9. DOI: 10.1002/pros.20100
Source: PubMed


WFDC1/ps20 protein has been previously established as a growth suppressor of the prostate cancer cell line PC3. It maps to chromosome 16q23.1, a region of frequent loss of heterozygosity, familial association, and genomic loss in prostate cancer. We, therefore, chose to examine WFDC1/ps20 for mutations and expression changes in prostate cancer.
DNA from 21 prostate cancer patients and 5 prostate cancer cell lines was screened for mutations in the WFDC1/ps20 gene by sequencing PCR products of each exon. An SphI polymorphism in the 5' UTR was screened in 23 tumors, 22 normal adjacent prostate tissue samples, and 35 control DNAs. Expression of WFDC1/ps20 in different tissue types was examined by Northern blot and by PCR across a multi-tissue cDNA panel. Expression patterns of WFDC1/ps20 in primary tumors were examined by full-length RT-PCR and products were cloned and sequenced to identify novel splice forms. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of WFDC1/ps20 was performed in a separate cohort of matched tumor/benign tissues.
No tumor-associated mutations were identified in the coding region of WFDC1/ps20. A novel polymorphism was found in exon 6 in DNA from cell lines, tumors, and normal adjacent benign tissue. A novel splice form completely deleted for exon 3 was found in tumor and normal prostate RNA. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated significant down regulation of WFDC1/ps20 in prostate tumors. Subdivision of normal tissue into stromal and epithelial compartments showed that WFDC1/ps20 expression correlates exponentially with the amount of stroma present.
WFDC1/ps20 is down regulated but not frequently mutated in prostate cancer. It is expressed predominantly in the normal stroma of the prostate. We, therefore, propose that WFDC1/ps20 may not be a classical tumor suppressor gene, but might play a role in the maintenance of the normal extra cellular matrix milieu in the prostate.

16 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fibroblasts located adjacent to the tumor [cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)] that constitute a large proportion of the cancer-associated stroma facilitate the transformation process. In this study, we compared the biological behavior of CAFs that were isolated from a prostate tumor to their normal-associated fibroblast (NAF) counterparts. CAFs formed more colonies when seeded at low cell density, exhibited a higher proliferation rate and were less prone to contact inhibition. In contrast to the general notion that high levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin serve as a marker for CAFs, we found that prostate CAFs express it at a lower level compared with prostate NAFs. Microarray analysis revealed a set of 161 genes that were altered in CAFs compared with NAFs. We focused on whey acidic protein four-disulfide core domain 1 (WFDC1), a known secreted protease inhibitor, and found it to be downregulated in the CAFs. WFDC1 expression was also dramatically downregulated in highly prolific mesenchymal cells and in various cancers including fibrosarcomas and in tumors of the lung, bladder and brain. Overexpression of WFDC1 inhibited the growth rate of the fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line. Furthermore, WFDC1 level was upregulated in senescent fibroblasts. Taken together, our data suggest an important role for WFDC1 in inhibiting proliferation of both tumors and senescent cells. Finally, we suggest that the downregulation of WFDC1 might serve as a biomarker for cellular transformation.
    Carcinogenesis 11/2008; 30(1):20-7. DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgn232 · 5.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The exact cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in melanoma tumorigenesis remain obscure. Previous gene expression profiling analyses performed upon NHEM and human melanoma samples identified WFDC1 as one of the most frequently down-regulated genes. Here we further showed that NHEM readily express WFDC1 but expression is reduced or completely lost in 80% of the patients-derived melanoma cell lines and tissue samples examined. Furthermore, we show that promoter hypermethylation accounts for the silencing of the WFDC1 gene in 20% of the melanoma cell lines examined. The over-expression of WFDC1 in two metastatic melanoma cell lines, A375 and LOX, resulted in a significant delay of tumor growth in a murine xenograft model, despite a non-significant difference in tumor cell growth in vitro. Gene expression microarray analysis and further expression validation suggests that the Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) gene is up-regulated in WFDC1 over-expressing cell lines, suggesting that the tumor suppressive function of WFDC1 may be partially a result of up-regulated Dkk1 gene expression, which is known to be a potent inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway.
    Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 07/2009; 26(7):739-49. DOI:10.1007/s10585-009-9273-8 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kallmann syndrome is a multigenic human developmental disorder where the molecular pathogenesis is still only partially understood and there is no single unifying animal model. The protein anosmin-1, encoded by the KAL1 gene, is associated with the X-linked form of the disease. The biology and molecular structure of anosmin-1 has been investigated systematically over the years by various cell culture experiments, biochemical analyses and animal models. Anosmin-1 is an extracellular matrix-associated protein which plays pleiotropic roles in neuronal development, migration and organogenesis.
    Frontiers of hormone research 04/2010; 39:78-93. DOI:10.1159/000312695 · 3.30 Impact Factor
Show more