Molecular analysis ofWFDC1/ps20 gene in prostate cancer
ABSTRACT WFDC1/ps20 protein has been previously established as a growth suppressor of the prostate cancer cell line PC3. It maps to chromosome 16q23.1, a region of frequent loss of heterozygosity, familial association, and genomic loss in prostate cancer. We, therefore, chose to examine WFDC1/ps20 for mutations and expression changes in prostate cancer.
DNA from 21 prostate cancer patients and 5 prostate cancer cell lines was screened for mutations in the WFDC1/ps20 gene by sequencing PCR products of each exon. An SphI polymorphism in the 5' UTR was screened in 23 tumors, 22 normal adjacent prostate tissue samples, and 35 control DNAs. Expression of WFDC1/ps20 in different tissue types was examined by Northern blot and by PCR across a multi-tissue cDNA panel. Expression patterns of WFDC1/ps20 in primary tumors were examined by full-length RT-PCR and products were cloned and sequenced to identify novel splice forms. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of WFDC1/ps20 was performed in a separate cohort of matched tumor/benign tissues.
No tumor-associated mutations were identified in the coding region of WFDC1/ps20. A novel polymorphism was found in exon 6 in DNA from cell lines, tumors, and normal adjacent benign tissue. A novel splice form completely deleted for exon 3 was found in tumor and normal prostate RNA. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated significant down regulation of WFDC1/ps20 in prostate tumors. Subdivision of normal tissue into stromal and epithelial compartments showed that WFDC1/ps20 expression correlates exponentially with the amount of stroma present.
WFDC1/ps20 is down regulated but not frequently mutated in prostate cancer. It is expressed predominantly in the normal stroma of the prostate. We, therefore, propose that WFDC1/ps20 may not be a classical tumor suppressor gene, but might play a role in the maintenance of the normal extra cellular matrix milieu in the prostate.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate adenocarcinoma is present in over 80% of men over the age of 80 and is by far the most common cancer of men. Although radical prostatectomy is curative in early disease, the risks of incontinence and impotence can affect the quality of life of patients. Early intervention with localized immunotherapy represents a potential solution as lymphocyte infiltration does occur in prostate cancer lesions, and immunotherapy with dendritic cell vaccines can significantly increase survival in late stage disease. However, lymphocytic infiltrates in the cancerous prostates have an anergic character arising from the suppressive effects of the microenvironment resulting from a conversion of effector cells into regulatory T-cells. Although TGFβ (transforming growth factor β) and IL-10 (interleukin-10) are known to be strong suppressor molecules associated with prostate cancer, they are among many possible suppressive factors. We discuss the possible role of alternative suppressor molecules, including the WAP (whey acidic protein) homologue ps20 that is expressed on prostate stroma and other WAP domain-containing proteins in the immunosuppressive prostate cancer milieu and discuss novel immunotherapeutic strategies to combat this disease.
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ABSTRACT: To discuss how whey acidic proteins (WAPs), a new class of immunomodulatory soluble mediators, impact innate immunity to HIV infection. Innate immunity to HIV infection is increasingly being recognized as critical in determining initial virus transmission and dissemination and may, therefore, be exploited in vaccine and microbicide intervention strategies to combat HIV infection. Several important innate immune mediators have recently been shown to regulate HIV infection in vitro and are, thus, implicated in in vivo immunity to the virus. These include soluble mediators, such as type I interferon, the defensins and more recently WAPs. Recent evidence is discussed, which show that WAPs are pleiotropic soluble mediators that may impact the course of HIV infection in two ways: as regulators of HIV replication and as regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. A better understanding of host factors that regulate HIV transmission is essential in the development of novel therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on recent findings that highlight the HIV regulatory and anti-inflammatory function of WAPs and assesses their potential to be exploited as novel therapeutics.Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 03/2012; 7(2):172-9. DOI:10.1097/COH.0b013e32835005d9 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: WFDC1/ps20 is a whey acidic protein four-disulfide core member that exhibits diverse growth and immune-associated functions in vitro. In vivo functions are unknown, although WFDC1 is lower in reactive stroma. A Wfdc1-null mouse was generated to assess core functions. Wfdc1-null mice exhibited normal developmental and adult phenotypes. However, homeostasis challenges affected inflammatory and repair processes. Wfdc1-null mice infected with influenza A exhibited 2.75-log-fold lower viral titer relative to control mice. Wfdc1-null infected lungs exhibited elevated macrophages and deposition of osteopontin, a potent macrophage chemokine. In wounding studies, Wfdc1-null mice exhibited an elevated rate of skin closure, and this too was associated with elevated deposition of osteopontin and macrophage recruitment. Wfdc1-null fibroblasts exhibited impaired spheroid formation, elevated adhesion to fibronectin, and an increased rate of wound closure in vitro. This was reversed by neutralizing antibody to osteopontin. Osteopontin mRNA and cleaved protein was up-regulated in Wfdc1-null cells treated with lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid coordinate with constitutively active matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), a protease that cleaves osteopontin. These data suggest that WFDC1/ps20 modulates core host response mechanisms, in part, via regulation of osteopontin and MMP-9 activity. Release from WFDC1 regulation is likely a key component of inflammatory and repair response mechanisms, and involves the processing of elevated osteopontin by activated MMP-9, and subsequent macrophage recruitment.American Journal Of Pathology 09/2014; 184(11). DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.07.013 · 4.60 Impact Factor