Ethanol production using concentrated oak wood hydrolysates and methods to detoxify.
ABSTRACT Ethanol production from concentrated oak wood hydrolysate was carried out to obtain a high ethanol concentration and a high ethanol yield. The effect of added inhibitory compounds, which are typically produced in the pretreatment step of steam-explosion on ethanol fermentation, was also examined. p-Hydroxybenzoic aldehyde, a lignin-degradation product, was the most inhibitory compound tested in this study. Compounds with additional methyl groups had reduced toxicity and the aromatic acids were less toxic than the corresponding aldehydes. The lignin-degradation products were more inhibitory than the sugar-derived products, such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Adaptation of yeast cells to the wood hydrolysate and detoxification methods, such as using charcoal and overlime, had some beneficial effects on ethanol production using the concentrated wood hydrolysate. After treatment with charcoal and low-temperature sterilization, the yeast cells could utilize the concentrated wood hydrolysate with 170 as well as 140 g/L glucose, and produce 69.9 and 74.2 g/L ethanol, respectively, with a yield of 0.46-0.48 g ethanol/g glucose. In contrast, the cells could not completely utilize untreated wood hydrolysate with 100 g/L glucose. Low-temperature sterilization, with or without charcoal treatment, was very effective for ethanol production when highly concentrated wood hydrolysates were used. Low-temperature sterilization has advantages over traditional detoxification methods, such as using overlime, ion exchange, and charcoal, because of the reduction in the total cost of ethanol production.
- SourceAvailable from: Ana M R B Xavier02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0008-9
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ABSTRACT: Microbial lipid produced using yeast fermentation with inexpensive carbon sources such as lignocellulosic hydrolyzate can be an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Several inhibitors that can be generated during acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose were added solely or together into the culture medium to study their individual inhibitory actions and their synergistic effects on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides. When the inhibitors were present in isolation in the medium, to obtain a high cell biomass accumulation, the concentrations of formic acid, acetic acid, furfural and vanillin should be lower than 2, 5, 0.5 and 1.5 g/L, respectively. However, the synergistic effects of these compounds could dramatically decrease the minimum critical inhibitory concentrations leading to significant growth and lipid production inhibitions. Unlike the above-cited inhibitors, sodium lignosulphonate had no negative influence on biomass accumulation when its concentration was in the range of 0.5-2.0 g/L; in effect, it was found to facilitate cell growth and sugar-to-lipid conversion. The fatty acid compositional profile of the yeast lipid was in the compositional range of various plant oils and animal tallow. Finally, the crude yeast lipid from bagasse hydrolyzate could be well converted into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, biodiesel) by enzymatic transesterification in a tert-butanol system with biodiesel yield of 67.2% and lipid-to-biodiesel conversion of 88.4%.Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 01/2012; 35(6):993-1004. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The demand for renewable energy is increasing due to increasing energy consumption and global warming associated with increasing use of fossil fuels. Hydrogen gas is considered as a good energy carrier due to its high energy content. Biomass (e.g. agricultural and forestry residues, food industry wastes, and energy crops) is amenable to dark fermentative hydrogen production. However, lignocellulosic materials require pretreatment and/or hydrolysis prior to dark fermentation. This paper reviews potential biomass sources for hydrogen fermentation as well as the effects of different pretreatment and hydrolysis methods on sugar yields as well as hydrogen yields from hydrolyzates. The effects of process parameters on dark fermentative hydrogen production from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates are also discussed.Biomass and Bioenergy. 01/2014; 67:145–159.