Ethanol production from concentrated oak wood hydrolysate was carried out to obtain a high ethanol concentration and a high ethanol yield. The effect of added inhibitory compounds, which are typically produced in the pretreatment step of steam-explosion on ethanol fermentation, was also examined. p-Hydroxybenzoic aldehyde, a lignin-degradation product, was the most inhibitory compound tested in this study. Compounds with additional methyl groups had reduced toxicity and the aromatic acids were less toxic than the corresponding aldehydes. The lignin-degradation products were more inhibitory than the sugar-derived products, such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Adaptation of yeast cells to the wood hydrolysate and detoxification methods, such as using charcoal and overlime, had some beneficial effects on ethanol production using the concentrated wood hydrolysate. After treatment with charcoal and low-temperature sterilization, the yeast cells could utilize the concentrated wood hydrolysate with 170 as well as 140 g/L glucose, and produce 69.9 and 74.2 g/L ethanol, respectively, with a yield of 0.46-0.48 g ethanol/g glucose. In contrast, the cells could not completely utilize untreated wood hydrolysate with 100 g/L glucose. Low-temperature sterilization, with or without charcoal treatment, was very effective for ethanol production when highly concentrated wood hydrolysates were used. Low-temperature sterilization has advantages over traditional detoxification methods, such as using overlime, ion exchange, and charcoal, because of the reduction in the total cost of ethanol production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellulosome, a multi-subunit protein complex catalyzing cellulose degradation in cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum, plays a crucial role in Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulose into ethanol. Here, activity of cellulosome was tested under varying concentrations of chemical compounds derived from lignocellulose pretreatment and fermentation. We found that, firstly, the cellulolytic activity of cellulosome was actually promoted by formate, acetate and lactate; secondly, cellulosome was tolerant up to 5mM furfural, 50mM p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 1mM catechol. Furthermore, the cellulosome exhibited higher ethanol tolerance and thermostability than commercialized fungal (Trichoderma reesei) cellulase. To probe the implication of these unique enzyme-features, C. thermocellum JYT01 was cultured under conditions optimal for cellulosome activity. This CBP system yielded 491 mM ethanol, the highest level reported thus far for C. thermocellum monocultures. These findings demonstrate the potential advantages of bacterial cellulosome, and provide a novel strategy for design, selection and optimization of the cellulosome-ethanologen partnership.
"Very often hydrolysates containing toxic substances have to be purified before they can be used as fermentation media . To overcome the inhibitory effect of the toxic compounds during fermentation by yeasts, several types of treatment have been employed, including microorganism adaptation  , evaporation  , overtitration and overliming  , and adsorption on ion-exchange resins  , or on activated charcoal  . Combinations of these treatments are also reported in the literature    "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate containing a high xylose concentration was used as fermentation medium to evaluate the kinetic behavior of Candida guilliermondii yeast (FTI 20037) during the bioconversion of xylose into xylitol. Assays were conducted first with detoxified and non-detoxified (raw) hydrolysates and semi-synthetic medium in agitated flasks, and second with detoxified hydrolysate in a stirred-tank bioreactor at a given oxygen transfer rate. The results for the agitated flasks showed that in detoxified hydrolysate the xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion by the yeast was as effective as in synthetic medium and 47% higher than in raw hydrolysate. In the stirred-tank bioreactor, the kinetic behavior of the yeast in detoxified hydrolysate was slower, resulting in smaller values of fermentative parameters, probably due to unsuitability of the oxygen transfer rate employed (KLa=22 h−1).
PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY 07/2004; 39(11-39):1433-1439. DOI:10.1016/S0032-9592(03)00261-9 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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