Accumulation of protein-bound 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal in spinal cords from patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
ABSTRACT 4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) is a toxic, reactive aldehydic intermediate formed by nonenzymatic peroxidation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of this study was to determine the implication for HHE in the pathomechanism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by immunohistochemical and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques using a mouse monoclonal IgG(1) antibody mAbHHE53 specific for protein-bound HHE. Immunohistochemical analysis on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections and frozen sections of spinal cords obtained at autopsy from 10 sporadic ALS patients and 10 age-matched control subjects demonstrated that protein-bound HHE immunoreactivity was seen and was prominent in the entire gray matter in the ALS cases and localized in the neurons, reactive astrocytes, microglial cells, and the surrounding neuropil, while the immunoreactivity was obscure or undetectable in the control cases. No significant protein-bound HHE immunoreactivity was seen in sections processed with omission of mAbHHE53 or in sections incubated with the antibody with an excess of the respective antigen. Competitive ELISA analysis on trypsin-digested protein extracts of fresh-frozen spinal cord samples disclosed a significant increase in protein-bound HHE level in the ALS cases compared with the control cases. Our results indicate that enhanced HHE formation occurs in the entire gray matter of sporadic ALS spinal cords and suggest that the selective vulnerability of motor neurons to HHE mediates the pathomechanism of this disease.
Article: The Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) Controls Natural Protective Mechanisms against Lipid Peroxidation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent evidence highlights the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as critical neuroprotective factors in several neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To gain new mechanistic insights into the role of these receptors in the context of ALS, here we investigated how PPAR transcriptional activity varies in hSOD1(G93A) ALS transgenic mice. We demonstrate that PPARγ-driven transcription selectively increases in the spinal cord of symptomatic hSOD1(G93A) mice. This phenomenon correlates with the up-regulation of target genes, such as lipoprotein lipase and glutathione S-transferase α-2, which are implicated in scavenging lipid peroxidation by-products. Such events are associated with enhanced PPARγ immunoreactivity within motor neuronal nuclei. This observation, and the fact that PPARγ displays increased responsiveness in cultured hSOD1(G93A) motor neurons, points to a role for this receptor in neutralizing deleterious lipoperoxidation derivatives within the motor cells. Consistently, in both motor neuron-like cultures and animal models, we report that PPARγ is activated by lipid peroxidation end products, such as 4-hydroxynonenal, whose levels are elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord from ALS patients. We propose that the accumulation of critical concentrations of lipid peroxidation adducts during ALS progression leads to the activation of PPARγ in motor neurons. This in turn triggers self-protective mechanisms that involve the up-regulation of lipid detoxification enzymes, such as lipoprotein lipase and glutathione S-transferase α-2. Our findings indicate that anticipating natural protective reactions by pharmacologically modulating PPARγ transcriptional activity may attenuate neurodegeneration by limiting the damage induced by lipid peroxidation derivatives.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2012; 287(43):35899-911. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lipid peroxidation (LPO) product accumulation in human tissues is a major cause of tissular and cellular dysfunction that plays a major role in ageing and most age-related and oxidative stress-related diseases. The current evidence for the implication of LPO in pathological processes is discussed in this review. New data and literature review are provided evaluating the role of LPO in the pathophysiology of ageing and classically oxidative stress-linked diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes and atherosclerosis (the main cause of cardiovascular complications). Striking evidences implicating LPO in foetal vascular dysfunction occurring in pre-eclampsia, in renal and liver diseases, as well as their role as cause and consequence to cancer development are addressed.Free radical research 10/2010; 44(10):1125-71. · 2.22 Impact Factor