Decreased arterial elasticity, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (C-V) disease, is associated with C-V risk factors in middle-aged and older individuals. However, information is limited in this regard in young adults. This aspect was examined in a community-based sample of 516 black and white subjects aged 25-38 years (71% white, 39% male). The common carotid artery elasticity was measured from M-mode ultrasonography as Peterson's elastic modulus (Ep) and relative wall thickness-adjusted Young's elastic modulus (YEM). Blacks and males had higher Ep (P < 0.05); males had higher YEM (P < 0.0001); and blacks had higher wall thickness (P < 0.01). For the entire sample adjusted for race and gender both Ep and YEM correlated significantly (P < 0.05-0.0001) with age, BMI, waist, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, product of heart rate and pulse pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, insulin and glucose. In a multivariate regression model that included hemodynamic variables, systolic blood pressure, product of heart rate and pulse pressure, age, triglycerides, BMI, and male gender (for YEM only) were independent correlates of Ep (R2 = 0.38) and YEM (R2 = 0.25). When the hemodynamic variables were excluded from the model, age, triglycerides, BMI, black race (Ep only), male gender, parental history of hypertension, HDL cholesterol (inverse association), and insulin (marginal significance) remained independent correlates of Ep (R2 = 0.20) and YEM (R2 = 16). Both Ep and YEM increased (P for trend P < 0.0001) with increasing number of independent continuous risk factors (defined as values above or below the age, race, and gender-specific extreme quintiles) that were retained in the regression models. The observed increasing arterial stiffness (or decreased elasticity) with increasing number of risk factors related to insulin resistance syndrome in free-living, asymptomatic young adults has important implications for prevention.
"Therefore, our study indicated the lack of an association between maternal hyperlipidemia and decreasing carotid artery elasticity. In both groups, but especially in the pregnant group, systolic blood pressure correlated with YEM and CAD, as also in previous studies . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims were to evaluate the effect of pregnancy on carotid artery elasticity and determine the associations between maternal lipids, endothelial function and arterial elasticity during pregnancy.
We examined 99 pregnant and 99 matched non-pregnant control women as part of a population-based prospective cohort study. Carotid artery elasticity indexes; carotid artery distensibility (CAD), Young's elastic modulus (YEM) and stiffness index (SI) as well as brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were assessed using ultrasound; serum lipid levels were also determined.
SI was 57% and YEM 75% higher and CAD 36% lower in the third trimester group than the corresponding values in the first trimester group. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in women at the end of the pregnancy than at the beginning of pregnancy (P < 0.001) and in controls (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, gestational age was the only independent correlate of arterial elasticity in pregnant women. In controls, age (P <= 0.001) and common carotid diameter (P = 0.001-0.029) were associated with SI, YEM and CAD.
The present study revealed that carotid artery elasticity declined towards the end of the pregnancy; this neither is straight correlating with maternal hyperlipidemia or the diameter of the carotid artery nor is it associated with changes in endothelial function.
"First, the MELANY cohort may be considered representative of a unique group of healthy young men. However, the characteristics of the population are strikingly similar to those of cohorts in published studies of young men from various industrialized countries –. In addition, the relatively homogeneous environment to which participants in our study were exposed might reduce the effect of unknown confounders. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown in young adults. Our objective was to assess the association between WBC count and its changes over time with CAD incidence in the Metabolic, Life-style and Nutrition Assessment in Young adults (MELANY) study, a cohort of Israeli army personnel.
29,120 apparently healthy young men (mean age; 31.2±5.5 years) with a normal baseline WBC count (3,000-12,000 cells/mm(3)) were followed during a mean follow up of 7.5±3.8 years for incidence of CAD. Participants were screened every 3-5 years using a stress test, and CAD was confirmed by coronary angiography. In a multivariate model adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, family history of CAD, physical activity, diabetes, triglycerides and smoking status, WBC levels (divided to quintiles) above 6,900 cells/mm(3) (quintile 4) were associated with a 2.17-fold increase (95%CI = 1.18-3.97) in the risk for CAD as compared with men in quintile 1 (WBC≤5,400 cells/mm(3)). When modeled as a continuous variable, a WBC increment of 1000 cells/mm(3) was associated with a 17.4% increase in CAD risk (HR 1.174; 95%CI = 1.067-1.290, p = 0.001). A decrease in the WBC level (within the normal range) during the follow-up period was associated with increased physical activity and decreased triglyceride levels as well as with reduced incidence of CAD.
WBC count is an independent risk factor for CAD in young adults at values well within the normal range. WBC count may assist in detecting subgroups of young men at either low or high risk for progression to CAD.
PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e47183. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047183 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"In the PDAY autopsy study, African American adolescents had more extensive fatty streaks in vascular beds than Caucasians, although greater raised lesions were evident among Caucasians (McGill et al., 2000; Wissler & Strong, 1998). In the Bogalusa Heart Study, African American young adults had greater carotid IMT (Urbina et al., 2002) and carotid artery stiffening (Urbina et al., 2004) than Caucasians. Among adults, greater arterial stiffness (Din- Dzietham et al., 2004) and IMT (Manolio et al., 1995) are generally observed among African Americans vs. Caucasians. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Racial and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well established among adults. However, little is known about disparities in CVD risk among adolescents, particularly considering indices of subclinical CVD. Our aim was to examine socioeconomic and racial disparities in subclinical CVD indices among adolescents. We hypothesized that African American and lower SES adolescents would show greater arterial stiffness and intima media thickness compared to Caucasian and higher SES adolescents, respectively. Participants were 81 African American and 78 Caucasian adolescents (mean age=17.8) from two schools in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Measures of subclinical CVD were pulse wave velocity and intima media thickness, as assessed by Doppler and B-mode ultrasound, respectively. SES indices included parental education, family income, family assets, subjective social status, and census-derived neighborhood SES. Hypotheses were evaluated in multiple linear regression models with the covariates age, gender, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Results indicated that African American adolescents were more often in low SES positions than Caucasians. When considered individually, racial and SES disparities in pulse wave velocity, and to a lesser extent, intima media thickness, were evident. When race and SES were considered together, high school education, low or medium income, and low neighborhood SES were associated with higher pulse wave velocity. Fewer assets were associated with higher intima media thickness. In conclusion, racial and SES disparities in indices of subclinical CVD were observed, with findings most pronounced for SES disparities in pulse wave velocity. This study extends previous findings in adults to adolescents, indicating that disparities in arterial stiffness and intima media thickness occur as early as adolescence. Efforts to reduce socioeconomic and racial disparities in CVD should target disparities early in life.
Social Science & Medicine 02/2009; 68(5):807-13. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.12.029 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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